What people thought of observational learning in Thorndike's time
Common knowledge that animals learned by observing other animals
Resuts of Thorndike's study on observational learning
No difference between observing and non-observing cats in solving a puzzle box
Warden, 1930s
Demonstrated that monkeys learn by observing conspecifics
Bandura et al, 1960s
Demonstrated that humans learn by observing; Used modeling to treat behavior disorders
Observational learning is also known as
Vicarious learning
Observational learning
A change in behavior due to the experience of observing a model
Vicarious reinforcement
An observer looks on as a model's behavior produces reinforcement
Vicarious punishment
An observer looks on as a model's behavior is punished
Results of Warden's 1935 study on observational learning with monkeys
47% of all solutions occurred within 10 seconds, 75% within 30 seconds; Observers solved problem faster than non-observing monkeys
Results of Herbert & Harsh' 1944 study on observer cats
Observers outperformed the models, and 30-trial observers outperformed 15-trial observers
Results of Presley & Riopelle's 1959 study on observational avoidance learning with monkeys
A light preceded electric shock by four seconds, and the monkey had to jump to escape shock; Observer reached criterion in fewer trials than model did after watching 28 successful avoidance trials
Rosekrans & Hartup's 1967 study on effects of reinforcement and punishment of a model's behavior
Children who observed aggressive behavior reinforced played more aggressively
Imitation of a model ___ necessarily imply that observational learning has occurred
does not
___ to imitate a model does not necessarily mean learning has not occurred
Generalized imitation
The tendency to imitate modeled behavior even when imitation of the behavior is not reinforced
Generalization imitation is the product of
Learning and direct reinforcement, taught through multiple exemplar training
Consequences of the model's behavior
Consistent reinforcement or punishment of a Bx gets better results than inconsistent consequences
Consequences of the observer's behavior
If a given behavior produces one kind of consequence for a model and a very different kind of consequence for an observer, the latter consequence will win out
Characteristics of the model
Observers tend to learn more from models who are competent, attractive, likeable, prestigious
Observer's age
Younger children learn less from observing than older children, and older children usually learn less than adults
Observer's learning history
The ability to learn from a model may also depend on learning experiences prior to viewing a model
Other variables affecting observational learning
Emotional state of the learner and complexity of the task being modeled