Bandura proposed in his findings
learning through modeling—directly or vicariously—involves four phases: paying attention, retaining the modeled behavior, reproducing the behavior, and being motivated to repeat the behavior. He proposed that students should be taught to have expectations for their own performances and to reinforce themselves.
Social Cognitive theory
social learning theory
focuses to a much greater degree on the effects of cues on behavior and on internal mental processes, emphasizing the effects of thought on action and action on thought
The first phase in observational learning is paying attention to a model. In general, students pay attention to role models who are attractive, successful, interesting, and popular. This is why so many students copy the dress, hairstyle, and mannerisms of pop culture stars. In the classroom you gain the students' attention by presenting clear and interesting cues, by using novelty or surprise, and by motivating students.
Once teachers have students' attention, it is time to model the behavior they want students to imitate and then give students a chance to practice or rehearse. you might show how to write the letter A. Then students would imitate your model by trying to write A's themselves.
students try to match their behavior to the model's. In the classroom the assessment of student learning takes place during this phase.
For example, after seeing the letter A modeled and practicing it several times, can the student reproduce the letter so that it looks like your model?
Students will imitate a model because they believe that doing so will increase their own chances to be reinforced. In the classroom the motivational phase of observational learning often entails praise or grades given for matching your model. Students pay attention to the model, practicing and reproducing it because they have learned that this is what you like and they want to please you. When the child makes a recognizable A, you say, "Nice work!
Learning based on observation of the consequences of others' behavior.
Describe three scenarios where a classroom teacher could use the principle of vicarious learning
Example 1: When one student is fooling around, teachers often single out others who are working well and reinforce them for doing a good job. The misbehaving student sees that working is reinforced and (it is hoped) gets back to work.b. Example 2: Two disruptive second-graders, Edwin and Greg, sat next to each other. After a baseline period, the teacher began to notice and praise Edwin whenever he was paying attention and doing his classwork. Edwin's behavior improved markedly under this condition.
Of greater interest, however, is that Greg's behavior also improved, even though no specific reinforcement for appropriate behavior was directed toward him. Apparently, Greg learned from Edwin's experience.c. Example 3: In the case of Ms.
Esteban and Rebecca at the opening of this chapter, other students saw Rebecca get Ms. Esteban's attention by calling out answers, so they modeled their behavior on Rebecca's.
Bandura - motivation