general trait or capacity of a person*determinant of achievement potential
specific to performing motor skills*inherent and unique to an individual
What do motor abilities dictate?
achievement potentials for specific motor skills-each motor skill requires specific motor abilities for successful performance
General Motor Ability
hypothesis: global motor ability- different specific motor abilities that exist are highly related within a person
Specificity of Motor Ability
hypothesis: motor abilities are relatively independent in an individual- many motor abilities that are not related
Does research evidence support general or specificity hypothesis?
Specificity. - research technique used: correlate any two motor abilities (each hypothesis predicts different correlation results)-Initial research compared reaction time and movement time: Henry and colleagues showed low correlations leading to conclusion that each is an independent motor ability--not related--specificity)
Is there any movement during reaction time?
no; movement only occurs during movement time (MT)
Recent research has been exploring whether variations of a motor ability commonly seen as "specific" actually represent one ability.
..what are two examples of this?
1. balance as a motor ability (static vs dynamic)2. timing as a motor ability (internal/self-paced vs external/anticipation)
What has research found on the topic of balance as a motor ability?
Two research examples:1. Rose et al.
: majority of kids with CP showed balance problems while walking (dynamic) but not while standing (static)2. Drowatzky and Zuccato: correlations among 6 tests of static and dynamic balance typically ranged from 0.03 to 0.31
What is the overall conclusion made about static and dynamic balance as a motor ability?
evidence indicates that static and dynamic balance are distinct, independent, 'multi-dimensional' abilities
What has research found of the topic of timing as a motor ability?
Hypothesis: there is a general timing ability that underlies all skill performance- External: movement timing based on external source (ie hitting pitched ball)- Internal: timing movement based on internal source
What is the overall conclusion made about external and internal timing as a motor ability?
evidence indicates distinct timing abilities are skill-specific rather than related to a general timing ability
If all evidence supports specificity of motor abilities, how do you explain the all-around athlete?
- abilities fall along a range of low, avg and high amounts within individuals- some have larger number of abilities at an avg level and others have a majority of abilities at either the high or low end of the scale- typically, when a person shows high performance levels in a variety of activities, those activities share a common foundational motor abilities
What is a technique for identifying motor abilities?
Fleishman's Taxonomy of Motor Abilities (11 perceptual-motor abilities)-Goal was to define the fewest independent ability categories or subset which might be most useful and meaningful in describing performance in teh widest variety of tasks
What are the 2 broad categories of abilities in Fleishman's Taxonomy?
1. Perceptual Motor Abilities (fine motor skills)2.
Physical Proficiency Abilities (gross motor skills)- abilities can be measured- relationship between skill performance and motor abilities- identify specific motor abilities
ability to coordinate movements of a number of limbs simultaneously
ability to make rapid and precise movement adjustments of control devices involving single-arm, hand or leg movements, adjustments made to visual stimuli
ability to make rapid selection of controls to be moved or the direction to move them in
Ability to respond rapidly to a signal when it appears
Speed of Arm Movement
ability to rapidly make a gross, discrete arm movement where accuracy is minimized
ability to time continuous anticipatory movement adjustments in response to speed and/or direction changes of a continuously moving target or object
Ability to make skillful arm-hand movements to manipulate fairly large objects under speeded conditions
Ability to make skillful controlled manipulations of tiny objects involving primarily the fingers
ability to make precise arm-hand positioning movements where strength and speed are minimized; includes maintaining arm-hand steadiness during arm movement or in a static arm position
Wrist, Finger Speed
ability to make rapid and repetitive movements with the hand and fingers and or rotary wrist movements when accuracy is not critical
Ability to rapidly and accurately move the hand to a small target
What is task analysis?
analysis of complex motor skills to identify underlying abilities (ie tennis serve as complex motor skill)- Fleishman's Taxonomy is used as a list of underlying abilities that may make up the more complex skill
What are 9 physical proficiency abilities?
*related to gross motor skill performance (physical fitness abilities)1. Static Strength: max force that can be exerted against external objects2. Dynamic Strength: muscular endurance used in exerting force repeatedly3. Explosive Strength: ability to mobilize energy effectively for bursts of muscular effort4. Trunk Strength5.
Extent Flexibility6. Dynamic Flexibility: Ability to make repeated, rapid trunk flexion movements7. Gross Body Coordination: ability to coordinate action of several parts of the body while body is in motion8. Gross Body Equilibrium: maintain balance without physical cues9. Stamina
What are the 3 levels of Analysis of a Complex Motor Skill?
1. The motor skill2.
the components of the skill3. the motor abilities underlying the performance of the skill's components
What are 2 uses for motor abilities tests?
1. Prediction: of future performance of a motor skill/physical activity (achievement potential and best fit for sports)3. Evaluation of effectiveness: of an intervention program (causes of motor skill performance deficiencies and assessment of motor development)