What is the difference between second language and foreign language learning?
Second language learning is when you learn a language spoken in your surroundings. Foreign language learning is when you study a language at school/university that is not the spoken language where you are at
What is the difference between acquisition and learning?
Acquisition is the gradual development of ability in a language by using it in communication with others who knows the language Learning applies a conscious process of accumulating knowledge of the features, such as vocabulary and grammar.
When is the optimal age for learning a n L2?
Between 10-16, before out flexibility of our inherent capacity for language has not been completely lost and the maturation of cognitive skills allows a more effective analysis of the regular features of the L2.
Affective factors when learning an L2?
Affective factores can be the self-conscious teen's unwilligness to embarrass himself in front of peers.

Dull textbooks, unpleasant classrooms. All these can create a barrier to acquisition.

Focus on method The grammar-translation method
Has its roots in the traditional teaching of Latin. May leave the students unaware in how the language is used in everyday conversations
Focus on method The audiolingual method
Emphasizes on spoken language.

Involves a systematic presentation fo the structures of the L2. Influenced by the belief that the fluent use of a language was a set of habits that could be developed with a lot of practice. Included language laboratory where oral drills were repeated. Can be incredibly boring.

Focus on method Communicative approaches
Are a reaction against the pattern practice and the belief that consciously learning the grammar rules will result in the ability to use the language Lessons are arranged around concepts as "asking for things", rather than "the forms of the past tense"
Focus on the learner Transfer
When the learner is transfering features from L1 to L2. If the languages are similar this works and will be a positive transfer, if the languages are different it is a negative transfer
Focus on the learner Interlanguage
Interlanguage is when the student uses rules that doesn't apply on either L1 or L2. There is an understanding that rules are different but not a knowledge of the rules.
Focus on the learner Motivation
Motivation to learn is important.

Instrumental motivation: the student wants to learn the L2 in order to achieve some other goal (school graduation, reading scientific publications etc.) Integrative motivation: the student wants to learn the L2 in order to take part in the social life of a community using that language.

Focus on the learner Input and output
Input is the language that the learner is exposed to. To be beneficial to the learner it has to be comprehensible, we can't process what we don't understand. It can be made simpler as in foreigner talk. Eg How are you getting on in your studies? - English class, you like it? Output is the tasks and activities in which the learners interact.

Communicative competence
Several components Grammatical competence, involves the accurate use of words and structures. Sociolinguistic competence, enables the learner to know when to say Can I have some water vs Give me some water. Strategic competence, the ability to organize a message and to compensate via strategies for any difficulties.