Persian Empire
a vast empire of southwest Asia founded by Cyrus II after 546 B.C. and brought to the height of its power and glory by Darius I and his son Xerxes
Athenian democracy
First recorded democracy ever established. Direct democracy with juries of up to 2,500 people. Had to be an 18 year old male with Athenian parents to rule. Freedom of Speech.
greco-persian wars
ionian greeks revolted against Persia; who were supported by athens, persia responded with wars against greeks, greeks beat the persions on land and sea.This victory radicalized athenian democracy: poor rowers recieved full citizenship, there was a FIFTY YEAR GOLDEN AGE OF GREEK CULTURE AFTER WAR, construction of parthenon, socrates, etc.
Alexander the Great
son of Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia; goal was to conquer the known world
Hellenistic Era
period when the Greek language and Greek ideas spread to the non-Greek peoples of southwest Asia.
Caesar Augustus
Honorific name of Octavian, founder of the Roman Principate, the military dictatorship that replaced the failing rule of the Roman Senate. He established his rule after the death of Julius Caesar and he is considered the first Roman Emperor.
Pax Romana
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
Qin Shihuangdi
Ruler of China who united China for the first time. He built road and canals and began the Great Wall of China. He also imposed a standard system of laws, money, weights, and writing.
Han Dynasty
imperial dynasty that ruled China (most of the time from 206 BC to AD 220) and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy; remembered as one of the great eras of Chinese civilization
Mauryan Empire
The first state to unify most of the Indian subcontinent. It was founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 324 B.C.E. and survived until 184 B.C.E. From its capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley it grew wealthy from taxes. (184)
Third ruler of the Mauryan Empire in India (r. 270-232 B.C.E.). He converted to Buddhism and broadcast his precepts on inscribed stones and pillars, the earliest surviving Indian writing. (p. 184)