The way of life of many people on the outskirts of civilization who occupy land that can not be farmed. They are nomadic and raise and graze cattle and animals. Characterized by the patriarchy-less society.
Leader of the Xiongnu Empire who effected a revolution in nomadic life. Made society more centralized and hierarchical political system.
An early large-scale nomadic empire of people living in the Mongolian steppes north of China.
Nomads from the north encroaching on Eurasian civilization. Various Turkic-speaking clans and tribes in Mongolia and Southern Siberia.
Almoravid Empire
Muslim Empire in West Africa of nomads. Sparked by a scholar, Ibn Yasin, who returned from Mecca to purify the people. Offered Christian opposition. Overrun in 12th century by Berber farming people from the Atlas Mountains.
Temujin/Chinggis Khan
Son of a killed clan chief, he soon grew to be a chief by his own right. Turned into the leader of the one of the fasted, largest, bloodiest empires in the world up to that point. Known for his ruthlessness.
The Mongol World War
The Mongol ideology that their work is to unite the whole world in one empire.
Yuan Dynasty China
The Mongol dynasty in China where they accommodated Chinese culture by adopting Chinese administrative practices, techniques of taxation, and postal system. Wanted a new beginning in Chinese history. Moved capital.
Khubilai Khan
The grandson of Chinggis Khan, he ordered a set of Chinese-style ancestral tablets to honor his ancestors and posthumously awarded them Chinese names. Policies evoked the values of a benevolent Chinese emperor; improving roads, built canals, lowered taxes, patronized scholars and artists, limited death penalty and torture, supported peasant agriculture, and prohibited Mongols from grazing their animals on peasants' farmland.
Grandson of Chinggis Khan who led a second assault (1251-1258) upon Persia. Became the first il-khan of Persia.
Daughter with many brothers of Mongol ruler of Central Asia, Qaidu Khan. Refused to marry and could fight better than any man.
Kipchak Khanate/Golden Horde
How the Mongols saw the Russian area they conquered. Named after the Kipchak Turkic-speaking peoples north of the Caspian and Black seas, among whom the Mongols had settled.
Black Death/Plague
The deadly disease that supposedly originated in China and was spread by rats over the Mongol Empire. Rates of death ranged from 50 to 90 percent of the affect population. Very deadly, would in turn kill the Mongol Empire .
Paleolithic persistence
Hunting and gathering people (Paleolithic- old stone age) persisted into modern times. All of Australia, much of Siberia, arctic coastlands, parts of Africa and the Americas. Changed over time and interacted with neighbors.
East of the Niger River in West Africa was a stateless civilization based on title societies in which wealthy men received a series of prestigious ranks, women's associations, hereditary ritual experts serving as mediators, a balance of power among kinship groups.
Newly agricultural Iroquois-speaking people in now central New York state. Distinct people emerged and warfare erupted, warfare was key to male prestige. Formed loose alliance/confederation called the League of Five Nations based on the Great Law of Peace among five Iroquois-speaking people -- the Mohawks, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca.
Turkic warrior leader who attempted to restore Mongol Empire. Launched attacks to Russia, Persia, and INdia. Conflicts among his successors prevented any lasting empire. Descendants would control area between Persia and Afghanistan.
West Africa's largest pastoral society from western fringe of the Sahara along upper Senegal River, they migrated eastward in centuries after 1000. Lived in small communities among agricultural people. Converted to Islam.
Ming dynasty China
The recovering dynasty after Mongol rule and plague. Early parts of dynasty attempted to eliminate all signs of foreign rule, promoting Confucian learning and orthodox gender roles, based on earlier models from the Han, Tang, and Song dynasties. Emperor Yongle sponsored enormous encyclopedia.
European Renaissance
1350-1500 in vibrant commercial cities of Italy. Renewed cultural blossoming in Europe that paralleled revival of all things Confucian in Ming dynasty China. In Europe, Renaissance celebrated and reclaimed a classical Greco-Roman tradition. Portrayed human body more realistically and three dimensionally.
Zheng He
Muslim, southwestern Chinese eunuch that helped launch the largest and most impressive maritime expeditions ever. Visited ports in Southeast Asia, Indonesia, India, Arabia, East Africa in order to recruit people into Tribute System, not conquer. People responded to him well because he was Muslim. Maritime voyages ended shortly, abruptly, and deliberately.
Ottoman Empire
Created by one of the many Turkic warrior groups that had earlier migrated into Anatolia. By mid 15th century, Ottoman Turks had tate encompassing much of Anatolian peninsula and had pushed deep into southeastern Europe (Balkans), acquiring a substantial Christian population. Represented emergence of Turks as dominant people of Islamic world, ruling many Arabs. Represented Muslims being aggressors instead of Christians (The Crusades).
Seizure of Constantinople
The Ottoman Empire seized Constantinople (capital of the Byzantine Empire) in 1453, marking the final demise of Christian Byzantium and allowed Ottoman rulers to see themselves as successors to the Roman Empire.
Safavid Empire
Persian, Turkic empire emerging from a Sufi religious order founded earlier by Safi al-Din. Forcibly imposed a Shia version of Islam as the official religion of the state. Sharp conflict between Ottoman and Safavid empires.
Songhay Empire
Western African savanna empire emerging in the second half of the 15th century. Operated at a critical intersection of the trans-Saharan trade routes that generated revenue from taxing that commerce. Represented a substantial Islamic state on the African frontier of a still-expanding Muslim world.
City in Songhay that was a major center of Islamic learning and commerce by the early 16th century.
Mughal Empire
Indian empire that continued an ongoing encounter between Islamic and Hindu civilizations. Established in the early 16th century, creation of Islamized Turkic group which invaded India. Gave India rare period of political unity and laid foundation for subsequent British rule.
Originally a small fishing village it transformed to a major Muslim port city, located on waterway between Sumatra and Malaya. City was a springboard for for the spread of Islam throughout the region. Demonstrated much blended with local Hindu/Buddhist tradition. Had reputation for "rough behavior" and lack of culture. Became a center for Islamic learning.
Aztec Empire
Mexica people moved south to island in Lake Texcoco. Developed their military capacity, served as mercenaries for more powerful people, negotiated elite marriage alliances with them, and built up their own capital city of Tenochtitlan. Formed Triple Alliance and launched highly aggressive program of military conquest. Had professional traders called pochtecas.
Inca Empire
Quechua people formed and empire, the Western Hemisphere's largest imperial state along the entire spine of the Andes mountains. Inca had a more bureaucratic empire with divine ruler and local officials. Attempted to unify/assimilate conquered people. State penetrated Inca society/economy much more than the Aztecs