Augustine of Hippo
(Roman Catholic Church) one of the great fathers of the early Christian church
Black Death
the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe
Charles Martel
Carolingian monarch of Franks; responsible for defeating Muslims in battle of Tours in 732; ended Muslim threat to western Europe.
king of the Franks who unified Gaul and established his capital at Paris and founded the Frankish monarchy
A new French monastery where monks strictly followed Benedictine rule.
Ferdinand and Isabella
This was the king and queen of Spain who took over the Catholic Spain and started the Spanish Inquisition
Fourth Crusade
a Crusade from 1202 to 1204 that was diverted into a battle for Constantinople and failed to recapture Jerusalem
Holy Roman Empire
the lands ruled by Charlemagne
Hundred Years War
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families. (p. 413)
Magna Carta
This document was signed by King John in 1215. It was the first document that limited the power of the government.
Economic system during the Middle Ages that revolved around self-sufficient farming estates where lords and peasants shared the land.
Middle Ages
The historical period from around 500 A.D. up to around 1450 A.D. between the fall of Rome and the birth of the Renaissance
Peter Abelard
French philosopher and theologian
Raoul de Cambrai
A french knight pillaged a convent, raped the nuns and burned them alive.
the system of philosophy dominant in medieval Europe
Thomas Aquinas
Italian theologian and Doctor of the Church who is remembered for his attempt to reconcile faith and reason in a comprehensive theology
Three-field System
A rotational system for agriculture in which one field grows grain, one grows legumes, and one lies fallow. It gradually replaced two-field system in medieval Europe.
William the Conqueror
duke of Normandy who led the Norman invasion of England and became the first Norman to be King of England
Ibn- Rushd
Spanish-Arab philosopher; also known as Averroes; influenced by Aristotle, his best known writings explore the relationship between reason and faith
a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service
King of the Franks who conquered much of Western Europe, great patron of leterature and learning
Benedict of Nursia
Italian monk who created a set of rules for Western monasteries in the 6th century
Pope Gregory VII
reformed a lot and determined to challenge secular authority. He caused a lot of conflict and was admired by many and hated by many. He banned lay investiture, which angered Henry IV
First Crusade
(1096 - 1099) Crusade called by Pope Urban II which captured Jerusalem. (only militarily successful Crusade)
Francis of Assisi
Italian monk who founded the Franciscan order; he devoted his life to serving the poor and sick.
1096 Christian Europe aim to reclaim Jerusalem and aid they Byzantines; 1st success and the rest a failure; weakens the Byzantines; opens up trade
Pope Urban II
Leader of the Roman Catholic Church who asked European Christians to take up arms against Muslims, starting the Crusades
Bodies representing privileged groups; institutionalized the feudal principle that rulers should consult their vassals.
men of women who were the poorest members of society, peasants who worked the lord's land in exchange for protection
a style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries
Brevard of Clairvaux
Geoffrey Chaucer
English poet remembered as author of the Canterbury Tales (1340-1400)
Hanseatic League
a commercial and defensive confederation of free cities in northern Germany and surrounding areas
Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests
Three Estates
The three social groups considered most powerful in Western countries; church, nobles, and urban leaders.
controversy Dispute between the popes and the Holy Roman Emperors over who held ultimate authority over bishops in imperial lands.
Roger Bacon
English scientist and Franciscan monk who stressed the importance of experimentation
members of the military elite who received land or a benefice from a lord in return for military service and loyalty
Roman Catholic Church
the Christian church headed by the pope in Rome
Royal house of Franks after 8th century until their replacement in 10th century.
the legendary hero of an anonymous Old English epic poem composed in the early 8th century
Third Crusade
a Crusade from 1189 to 1192 led by Richard I and the king of France that failed because an army torn by dissensions and fighting on foreign soil could not succeed against forces united by religious zeal
Head of the Roman Catholic Church
Battle of Tours
732 AD Christians defeat Muslim invaders and stop the spread of Islam into Europe
Heavy plow introduced in northern Europe during the Middle Ages; permitted deeper cultivation of heavier soils; a technological innovation of the medieval agricultural system.
Scandinavian pirates who plundered the coasts of Europe from the 8th to 10th centuries.
Songs of Roland
an epic about praise for Charlemagne
Style of church architecture using round arches, domes, thick walls, and small windows
a code that knights adopted in the late Middle Ages; requiring them to be brave, loyal and true to their word; they had to fight fairly in battle
Romance of the Rose
Poem written by Guillaume de Lorris and Jean de Meung during the 13th century; details the ideas of courtly love.
group of Germanic people who rose to prominence under the leadership of King Clovis