Samuel de Champlain
Father of New France who established a crucial alliance with the Huron Indians
Robert de La Salle
French empire builder who explored the Mississippi Basin and named it after his monarch; founded Louisiana
Treaty of Urecht
agreement that ended the War of Spanish Succession (Queen Anne's War) and awarded Acadia to Britain
War of Austrian Succession
conflict that started with the War of Jenkins' Ear and ended with the return of Louisbourg to France
Fort Duquesne
strategic French stronghold, later named after a great British statesman
George Washington
militia commander whose frontier skirmish in Pennsylvania touched off a world war
Benjamin Franklin
advocate of colonial unity at the unsuccessful Albany Congress
General Braddock
blundering British officer whose defeat gave the advantage to the French and Indians in the early stages of their war
William Pitt
splendid British orator and organizer of the winning strategy against the French in North America
Plains of Abraham
site of death of Generals Wolfe and Montcalm, where France's New World empire also perished
Seven Years' War
conflict in Europe that pitted France against Britain's ally Frederick the Great of Prussia
Indian leader whose frontier uprising caused the British to attempt to limit colonial expansion
Proclamation of 1763
British document that aroused colonial anger but failed to stop frontier expansion
New Orleans
strategic French outpost at the mouth of the Mississippi
Acadians (Cajuns)
French colonists in Nova Scotia brutally uprooted by victorious British and shipped to Louisiana
French Protestants who were granted toleration by the Edict of Nantes (1598) but not permitted to settle in New France
King Louis XIV
absolute French monarch who reigned for 72 years
animal whose pelt provided great profits for the French empire and enhanced European fashion at enormous ecological costs
French Catholic religious order that explored the North American interior and sought to protect and convert the Indians
coureurs de bois
far-running, high-living French fur trappers
Louisbourg Fortress
strategic French fortress conquered by New England settlers, handed back to the French, and finally conquered again by the British in 1759
Ohio Valley
island river territory, scene of fierce competition between the French and land-speculating English colonists
bloodiest European theater of the Seven Years' War, where Frederick the Great's troops drained French strength away from North America
Albany Congress
unification effort that Benjamin Franklin nearly led to success by his eloquent leadership and cartoon artistry
fortress boldly assaulted by General Wolfe , spelling doom for New France
the "buckskin" colonial soldiers whose military success did nothing to alter British officers' contempt
Native Americans
allies of the French against the British, who continued to fight under Pontiac even after the peace settlement in 1763
Compared with the English colonies, New France was...
more autocratically (absolutely) governed
The expansion of New France occurred especially...(where?)
along the paths of lakes and rivers
Colonial Americans were unhappy after the peace treaty following the War of Jenkins' Ear because...
it gave the Louisbourg fortress they had captured back to France
The original cause of the French and Indian War was...
competition between French and English colonists for land in the Ohio River valley
The French and Indian War eventually became part of the larger world conflict known as...
the Seven Years' War
Benjamin Franklin's attempt to create intercolonial unity and the Albany Congress resulted in...
rejection of the congress's proposal for colonial home rule by both London and the individual colonies
The British forces suffered early defeats in the French and Indian War under the overall command of...
General Braddock
William Pitt's strategies in the assault of New France finally succeeded because...
he concentrated British forces on attacking the vital strong points of Quebec and Montreal
The decisive event in the French-British contest for North America was...
the British victory in the Battle of Quebec
Among the factors that tended to promote intercolonial unity during the French and Indian War was...
common language and wartime experience
The French and Indian War weakened interior Indian peoples like the Iroquois and Creeks by...
removing their French and Spanish allies from Canada and Florida
Pontiac's fierce attack on frontier outposts (1763) had the effect of...
convincing the British to keep troops stationed in the colonies
The British Proclamation of 1763...(feelings)
angered colonists who thought that it deprived them of the fruits of victory
The French and Indian War created conflict between British and the American military because...
British officers treated the American colonial militia with contempt
The effect on the colonists of the French removal from North America was...
to reduce the colonies' reliance on Britain and increase their sense if independence
Cause: The French fur trade
Effect: decimated beaver populations while spreading the French empire
Cause: The four "world wars" between 1688 and 1763
Effect: were echoed by four small wars between French and British subjects in North America
Cause: Competition for land and furs in the Ohio Valley
Effect: led to Washington's expedition and battle with the French at Fort Necessity
Cause: The summoning of the Albany Congress by the British
Effect: represented the first major attempt at intercolonial unity
Cause: William Pitt's assumption of control of British government and strategy
Effect: ended a string of defeats and turned the French and Indian War in Britain's favor
Cause: Wolfe's victory over Montcalm at Quebec
Effect: resulted in the decisive French defeat and British domination of North America
Cause: The colonial militia's military success in the French and Indian War
Effect: increased American military confidence and resentment of British redcoats
Cause: Colonial American smuggling and trading with French enemy
Effect: increased British government's disdain for colonial Americans and raised doubts about their loyalty to the empire
Cause: British issuance of the Proclamation of 1763
Effect: heightened colonial anger and encouraged illegal westward expansion
Cause: Braddock's defeat at Fort Duquesne
Effect: prompted widespread Indian assaults on the weakly defended colonial frontier