Neolithic revolution
the transition from hunting and gathering to farming. In Central America at about 8,000 b.c.e. aided by the development of cron
North American societies before outside contact
small bands of people living in isolation
European societies before outside contact
acute population pressure, constant warfare, new ideas (aided by the printing press), Protestant Reformation and large nation-states were prevelant
African societies before outside contact
villages and big cities along trade routes along with herding peoples in the Sahara
Treaty of Tordesillas
the treaty, brokered by the pope, confirmed Portugal's right to control the route around Africa to India, and Spain's claim to most of the newly discovered lands of America.
Spanish 'conqueror' or soldier in the New World. They were searching for the 3-G's: gold, God, and glory.
ecomienda system
a kind of feudalism granting Spanish colonists control of conquered lands and obliging the Indians to provide forced labor and a fixed portion of their harvests
John Cabot
Italian explorer who led the English expedition (giving England claim to the land) in 1497 that discovered the mainland of North America and explored the coast from Nova Scotia to Newfoundland (ca. 1450-1498)
Giovanni de Verrazano
Italian explorer of the Atlantic coast of North America
Jacques Cartier
French explorer who explored the St. Lawrence river and laid claim to the region for France (1491-1557)
John Calvin
French humanist whose theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva
Martin Luther
German theologian who led the Reformation (believed Grace was granted based on faith)
Henry VIII
(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.
joint-stock companies
enabled groups of investors to pool their capital and limit their individual responsibilities to the sums actually invested
Francis Drake
English explorer and admiral who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe and who helped to defeat the Spanish Armada with secrete aid from Elizabeth I
Sir Humphrey Gilbert
English navigator who in 1583 established in Newfoundland the first English colony in North America, but decided to move to a better area and was killed in a storm on his way home
Walter Raleigh
English courtier (a favorite of Elizabeth I) who tried to colonize Virginia (Roanoke)
Established in 1587, the first English colony, called the Lost Colony. It was financed by Sir Walter Raleigh, and its leader in the New World was John White. All the settlers disappeared, and historians still don't know what became of them.
Richard Hakluyt
Main promoter of colonization by England (with royal aid) in the New World. Reasons included surplus of English labor and thwarting Spain.
James I
succeeded Elizabeth I, persecuted the Puritans, led to many moving to america
London Company
group of merchants who paid for the founding of Jamestown
Captain John Smith
English army captain whose strict discipline helped the Jamestown settlement to survive
First permanent English settlement in North America (1607)
John Rolfe
English settler at Jamestown (he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
Powhatan Indians
original tribes in the area surrounding Jamestown, gave the settlers food, taught them the ways of the forests and introduced new crops (corn and yams), constantly warring with the settlers
House of Burgesses
the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts.
Royal Colony
A colony under the direct control of a monarch (English Crown)
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization, stressed simplicity and faith. Settled the Mass. Bay Colony
Anglican Church
the national church of England (and all other churches in other countries that share its beliefs), created by Henry VIII
16th century theology (named after its founder Jacobus Arminius) that opposes the absolute predestinarianism of John Calvin and holds that human free will is compatible with God's sovereignity, stresses free will
People who wanted to have a separate, or different church. Also known as Pilgrims.
William Bradford
A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.
Of Plymouth Plantation
a history of Plymouth written by William Bradford
Native American leader and friend of the early colonists. He was the first to sell land to the Pilgrims (1625).
Native American who helped the English colonists in Massachusetts develop agricultural techniques (fish, farm and hunt) and served as an interpreter between the colonists and the Wampanoag.
the ship in which the Pilgrims sailed from England to Massachusetts in 1620
Mayflower Compact
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
English Puritans, seeking religious freedom, who founded Plymouth colony in 1620
John Winthrop
Leader of the first settlers at Massachusetts Bay Colony
Great Migration
when more than 15,000 Puritans journeyed to Massachusetts to escape religious persecution and economic hard times (1630-1640)
Massachusetts Bay Colony
1630 - Puritan settlement and government in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political freedom and a representative government.
Roger Williams
A dissenter who clashed with the Massachusetts Puritans over separation of church and state and was banished in 1636, after which he founded the colony of Providence, Rhode Island
Anne Hutchinson
Preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
the theological doctrine that by faith and God's grace a Christian is freed from all laws (including the moral standards of the culture), religious leaders are unnecessary
Rhode Island
Roger WIlliams; Puritans; wanted religious tolerance, separation of church and state and democratic gov.
Thomas Hooker and Connecticut
Founded in 1639, drafted the Fundamental Orders
Fundamental Orders
The constitution of the Connecticut River colony drawn up in 1639, it established a government controlled in democratic style by the "substantial" citizens.
Pequot War
1637 The Bay colonists wanted to claim Connecticut for themselves but it belonged to the Pequot, result of competition for Dutch trade and friction over land boundaries; pequot virtually wiped out
Chief of the Wampanoag Indians who led an attack on villages throughout New England. This was the largest conflict in 1675, called King Phillip's War (he was nicknamed "King Phillip")
King Phillip's War
an attack on villages throughout New England in an effort to drive out the English. This was the largest conflict in 1675, led by Metacom
persons given large areas of land by a charter from the king
Founded by Lord Baltimore, safe haven for Catholics, created the Act of Toleration
Lord Baltimore
1694- He was the founder of Maryland, a colony which offered religious freedom, and a refuge for the persecuted Roman Catholics.
Toleration Act
act that allowed freedom of worship for all Christians in Maryland, kept peace between Catholics and Protestants
1690 - The first permanent settlement in the Carolinas, named in honor of King Charles II. Much of the population were Huguenot (French Protestant) refugees.
New Amsterdam
a settlement established by the Dutch, captured by the English and renamed New York
New Sweden
was established in 1638, taken over by New Netherlands (the Dutch) in 1655 and encompassed southern NJ, parts of PA and Delaware
Duke of York
- Charles II gave the entire area between Connecticut and Maryland to his brother. This created a problem with the Dutch who occupied this area. In 1664 English forces capture New Amsterdam without a fight and the rest of the Dutch settlements soon followed. He gave New jersey to Lord Berkely and Sir George Carteret.
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preach a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
William Penn
Englishman and Quaker who founded the colony of Pennsylvania (1644-1718)
Holy Experiment
William Penn's title for his colony in Pennsylvania, dealt fairly with Indians, freedom of religion
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
Why English settlers came to North America
For religious freedom, more land and more economic opportunities
Spanish accomplishments in opening the New World to exploration
Spain was the first to seize the opportunities (for labor, land and goods) created by the New World. They continually funded more explorations. The conquistadores destroy native populations. Spanish explorers are the first to discover and colonize much of the Americas (especially the southern end)
Evaluate Mass. Bay's role as the center of English settlements
a democratic Puritan settlement, many Puritans came here during the Great Migration, many more colonies were created around it, original home of Williams and Hutchinson, first example of major Puritan colony
Requirements of successful colonization
peaceful relationship with the natives, knowledge of the land and its benefits, knowledge of how to work the land, good/strict leadership, cultural/religious acceptance