Josiah Strong
Author of Our Country, on Anglo-Saxon superiority; a popular American minister in the late 1800s who linked Anglo-Saxonism to Christian missionary ideas
Our Country (1885)
Written by Joshiah Strong. Advocated American Expansion to christianize and civilize "weaker nations"
Senator Henry Cabot Lodge Sr
Applied Darwin's survival of the fittest theory to nations-Was the order of things for the strong to conquer the weak-Introduced the Lodge Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine- nonEuropean powers would be excluded from owning territory in Western Hemispheres-From Massachusetts
Alfred Thayer Mahan
American Naval officer and historian. He is most famous for his book "The Influence of Sea Power on History" which defined Naval strategy. His philosophies had a major influence on the Navies of many nations resulting in a igniting of naval races between countries.
The Influence of Sea Power Upon History (1890)
Written by Alfred Mahan who argued that control of the sea was the key to world dominance; it was very influential in promoting the growth of US naval power during the 19th century.
Queen Liluokalani
Hawaiian Ruler, she called for new constitution to increase her power and restore political power to Hawaiians. 1893 she was overthrown by American businessman
McKinley Tariff of 1890
Raised tariffs to the highest level they had ever been. Big business favored these tariffs because they protected U.S. businesses from foreign competition.
"You furnish the pictures and I will furnish the war!"
Stated by William Randolph Hearst to Frederick Remington when he was in Cuba because he wanted him to keep painting for his sensational magazines
Alaska Purchase (1867)
Ended Russian territorial presence and completed U.S. expansion on North American mainland.
Rough Riders
Volunteer soldiers led by Theodore Roosevelt during the Spanish American War
Emilio Aguinaldo
Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901. (p. 743)
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
Panama Canal
A ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States (1904-1914)
Great White Fleet
1907-1909 - Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement."
New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson's domestic policy that, promoted antitrust modification, tariff revision, and reform in banking and currency matters. The campaign for the presidency in 1912, the New Freedom emphasized business competition and small government. It sought to reign in federal authority, release individual energy, and restore competition.
Imperialist Presidents
-George Washington -Alexander Hamilton -Abraham Lincoln -Theodor Roosevelt -Harry S. Truman
Mexican Civil War
Wilson's moral approach to foreign affairs was severely tested by a revolution and civil war in Mexico. Wanting democracy to triumph there, he refused to recognize the military dictatorship of General Victoriano Huerta, who had seized power in Mexico in 1913 by arranging to assassinate the democratically elected president.
Pancho Villa
Mexican revolutionary leader (1877-1923) Did many good things, but killed a lot of people. Wanted to take money from the rich and give it to the poor.
"Remember the Maine! To Hell with Spain!"
US battleship exploded on the coast of cuba when protecting the citizens against Spain; unknown causes; US blamed it on Spain and thought it as sabotage
De Lome Letter
Spanish Ambassador's letter that was illegally removed from the U.S. Mail and published by American newspapers. It criticized President McKinley in insulting terms. Used by war hawks as a pretext for war in 1898.
"Reconcentration" Policy
When Cubans started to rebel, Spaniards begain to reorganize prisoners into labor camps.
General Valeriano Weyler
A Spanish general who was sent to crush the Cuban revolt. By using "brutal" methods, he caused uproar in the United States, who called for immediate action to help the Cubans.
Extreme, chauvinistic patriotism, often favoring an aggressive, warlike foreign policy
Yellow Journalism
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers.
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Teller Amendment
This Amendment was drafter by Henry M. Teller which declared that the US had no desire for control in Cuba & pledged the US would leave the island alone.
Puerto Rico/Guam
Territories acquired by the US for $20 million from Spain after Treaty of Paris.
Platt Amendment (1901)
an amendment added to Cuba's constitution by the Cuba government, after pressure from the United States; it provided that Cuba would make no treaties that compromised its independence or granted concessions to other countries without U.S. approval. The amendment was abrogated in 1934.
Big-Stick Policy
Roosevelt's philosophy - In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen
Roosevelt Corollary
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Dollar Diplomacy
Diplomacy influenced by economic considerations
Jones Act (1916)
Granted Phillipines territorial status and promised independence as soon as stable government was achieved
Moral Diplomacy
Foreign policy proposed by President Wilson to condemn imperialism, spread democracy, and promote peace
Tampico Incident
An arrest of American sailors by the Mexican government that spurred Woodrow Wilson to dispatch the American navy to seize the port of Veracruz in April 1914. Although war was avoided, tensions grew between the US and Mexico.