people with no permanent home; move from place to place in search of food,
Pastoral Society
a society in which food is obtained primarily by raising and taking care of animals
foraging society
Any human culture or society that depends on a combination of hunting, fishing, and gathering wild foods for subsistence.
the taming of animals for human use, such as work or as food
food surplus
extra food creation that allows people to engage in activities besides farming
job specialization
a job composed of a small part of a larger task or process
exchange goods without involving money
a society in an advanced state of social development (e.g., with complex legal and political and religious organizations)
belief in multiple Gods
a rectangular tiered temple or terraced mound erected by the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians
code of hammurabi
A collection of 282 laws. One of the first (but not THE first) examples of written law in the ancient world.
an ancient wedge-shaped script used in Mesopotamia and Persia
the epic of gilgamesh
first written document/story taking place in Mesopotamia and tells about the quest for immortality and the inevitability of death, and which includes a flood story similar to that of Noah's Ark. This epic is important because it illustrates the Israelites' same fear of death and desire for immortality...
a king of ancient Egypt, considered a god as well as a political and military leader
ancient Egyptian writing system using picture symbols for ideas or sounds
belief in a single God
Egyptian pharaoh (r. 1353-1335 B.C.E.). He built a new capital at Amarna, fostered a new style of naturalistic art, and created a religious revolution by imposing worship of the sun-disk.
harrapa and Mohenjo-daro
the largest Indus River civilizations, 3,500-4,000 people, organized, sewage systems, public wells
nomads from Europe and Asia who migrated to India and finally settled; vedas in this time period suggest beginning of caste system
one of the main groups of people in India; probably descended from the Indus River culture that flourished at the dawn of Indian civilization over 4,000 yrs. ago
In Hinduism, the duties and obligations of each caste
Ancient Sanskrit writings that are the earliest sacred texts of Hinduism.
chandragupta maurya
founder of Maurya dynasty; established first empire in Indian subcontinent; first centralized government since Harappan civilization
caste system
a social structure in which classes are determined by heredity
Priests, at the top of the caste system which the Aryans made
lowest class of people in the caste system of Hinduism, do all the dirty work of society
The social divisions of the Aryan Society that included from top to bottom: 1)priests (Brahmins), 2) rulers or warriors; 3) farmers, craftspeople, traders; 4) workers and servants (Sudras)
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person's actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation
the Hindu or Buddhist doctrine that person may be reborn successively into one of five classes of living beings (god or human or animal or hungry ghost or denizen of hell) depending on the person's own actions
The Hindu concept of the spirit's 'liberation' from the endless cycle of rebirths.
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the beatitude that transcends the cycle of reincarnation
siddhartha gautama
founder of Buddism; born a prince; left his father's wealth to find the cause of human suffering; also know as Buddha
four noble truths
1) All life is full of suffering, pain, and sorrow. 2) The cause of suffering is nonvirtue, or negative deeds and mindsets such as hated and desire. 3) The only cure for suffering is to overcome nonvirture. 4) The way to overcome nonvirtue is to follow the Eightfold Path
grandson of Chandragupta; most honored emperor for his commitment to spreading peace and prosperity to all; was buddhist but accepted other religions; decline came after his death
people who work to spread their religious beliefs
oracle bones
animal bones carved with written characters which were used for telling the future
bronze metallurgy
copper and tin combined to make Bronze, Shang completely controlled bronze production.
mandate of heaven
a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
dynastic cycle
the historical pattern of the rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties
era of warring states
The period of Chinese history between c. 500 and 220 B.C.E. characterized by the breakdown of the central government and feudal war.
chinese philospher and teacher; his beliefs,known as confusoinism greatly influenced chinese life
main ideas of confucianism
-people are essentially good but need good leadership examples -filial piety -ability to rise above one's station in life through education -confucius sought to work for rulers and advise them on good governance -five relationships: 1) ruler to ruled 2) father to son 3) husband to wife 4) older brother to younger brother 5) friend to friend
filial piety
in Confucian thought, one of the virtues to be cultivated, a love and respect for one's parents and ancestors
The proper way Chinese kings were expected to rule under the mandate of heaven.
Chinese philosophy developed by Hanfeizi; taught that humans are naturally evil and therefore need to be ruled by harsh laws