An African state that developed along the upper reaches of the Nile c. 1000 B.C.E. ; conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries
Kingdom located in Ethiopian highlands; replaced meroe in the first century C.E.; received strong influence from Arabian peninsula; eventually converted to Christianity
A Christian kingdom that developed in the highlands of eastern Africa under the dynasty of King Lalaibela; retained Christianity in the face of Muslim expansion elsewhere in Africa
Religion of early Japanese culture; devotees worshipped numberous gods and spirits associated with the natural world; offers of food and prayers made to gods and nature spirits
Cultural tradition that arose at San Lorenzo and La Venta in Mexico c 1200 B.C.E.; featured irrigate agriculture, urbanism, elaborate religion, beginnings of calendrical and writing systems
Site of classic culture in central Mexico; urban center with important religious functions; supported by intensive agriculture in surrounding regions; population of as much ass 200,000
Group of clans centered at Cuzco that were able to create empire incorporating various Andean cultures; term also used for leader of empire
Polynesian peoples
people of the islands contained in a rough triangle whose points lie in Hawaii, New Zealand, and Easter Island
Dynasty that succeeded the Hand in China; emerged from strong rulers in northern China; united all of northern China and reconquered southern China
Dynasty that succeeded the Sui in 618 C.E.; more stable than previous dynasty
Regional princes in India following collapse of empire; emphasized military control of their regions
Mother goddess within Hinduism; widely spread following collapse of Guptas; encouraged new emotionalism in religious ritual
Major world religion having its origins in 610 C. E. in the Arabian peninsula; meaning literally submission; based on prophecy of Muhammad
Supreme God in strictly monotheistic Islam
second capital of Rome; established by Roman emperor Constantine
Byzantine Empire
Eastern half of Roman Empire following collapse of western half of old empire; retained Mediterranean culture, particularly Greek; later lost Palestine, Syria, and Egypt to Islam; capital at Constantinople
Influential church father and theologian; born in Africa and ultimately Bishop of Hippo in Africa; champion of Christian doctrine against carious heresies and very important in the long-term development of Christian thought on such issues as predestination
Coptic Christianity
religion of Egypt that originated in Alexandria; acknowledge John Mark as first bishop and founder; The Coptic church was actually the very first major split in the Church
the religions changed , sometimes taking on the features of indicidual civilizations even while maintaining larger religious claims
Buddhist holy men; built up spiritual merits during their life times; prayers even after death could aid people to achieve reflected holiness
Chinese version of Buddhism; placed considerable emphasis on Buddha as god or savior
Jesus of Nazareth
Prophet and teacher among the Jews; believed by Christians to be the messiah; executed c. 30 C.E.
One of the first Christian missionaries; moved away from insistence that adherents of the new religion follow Jewish law; use of Greek as language of Church
Founder of manasticism in what had been the western half o the Roman Empire; established Benedictine Rule in the 6th century; paralleled development of Basil's rules in Byzantine Empire