International office of communism under USSR dominance established to encourage the formation of Communist parties in Europe and elsewhere.
Stalin, Joseph
Successor to Lenin as head of the USSR; strongly nationalist view of communism; represented anti-Western strain of Russian tradition; crushed opposition to his rule; established series of five-year plans to replace New Economic Policy; fostered agricultural collectivization; led USSR through World War II; furthered cold war with western Europe and the United States; died in 1953.
Supreme Soviet
parliament of union of soviet socialist republic; elected by universal suffrage; actually controlled by communist party; served to ratify party decisions
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Federal system of socialist republics established in 1923 in various ethnic regions of Russia; firmly controlled by Communist party; diminished nationalities protest under Bolsheviks; dissolved 1991.
New Economic Policy
Initiated by Lenin in 1921; state continued to set basic economic policies, but efforts were now combined with individual initiative; policy allowed food production to recover.
Red Army
Military organization constructed under leadership of Leon Trotsky, Bolshevik follower of Lenin; made use of people of humble background
Alexander Kerensky
Liberal revolutionary leader during the early stages of the Russian Revolution of 1917; sought development of parliamentary rule, religious freedom.
Conservative peasant movement in Mexico during the 1920s; most active in central Mexico; attempted to halt slide toward secularism; movement resulted in armed violence.
Jose clemente Orozco
Mexican muralist of the period after the Mexican revolution; like Rivera's, his work featured romantic images of the Indian past with Christian symbols and Marxist ideology
Rivera Diego
Mexican artist of the period after the Mexican Revolution; famous for murals painted on walls of public buildings; mixed romantic images of the Indian past with Christian symbols and Marxist ideology.
Mexican Constitution of 1917
Promised land reforms, limited foreign ownership of key resources, guaranteed rights of workers, and placed restrictions on clerical education; marked formal end of Mexican Revolution. (p 776)
Obregon Alvaro
Emerged as leader of the Mexican government in 1915; elected president in 1920.
Victoriano Huerta
Attempted to reestablish centralized dictatorship in Mexico following the removal of Madero in 1913; forced from power in 1914 by Villa and Zapata
Emiliano Zapata
Mexican revolutionary and military commander of peasant guerrilla movement after 1910 centered in Morelos; succeeded along with Pancho Villa in removing Diaz from power; also participated in campaigns that removed Madero and Huerta; demanded sweeping land reform. (p 775)
Villa Pancho
Mexican revolutionary and military commander in northern Mexico during the Mexican Revolution; succeeded along with Emiliano Zapata in removing Diaz from power; also participated in campaigns that removed Madero and Huerta.
Diaz Porfirio
One of Juárez's generals; elected president of Mexico in 1876; dominated Mexican politics for 35 years; imposed strong, central government.
Madero Francisco
Moderate democratic reformer in Mexico; proposed moderate reforms in 1910; arrested by Porfirio Diaz; initiated revolution against Diaz when released from prison; temporarily gained power, but removed and assassinated in 1913.
Cubist Movement
20th Century art style; best represented by Spanish artist Pablo Picasso; rendered familiar objects as geometrical shapes
Mexican Revolution
Fought over a period of almost 10 years form 1910; resulted in ouster of Porfirio Diaz from power; opposition forces led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata
Political philosophy that became predominant in Italy and then Germany during the 1920s and 1930s; attacked weakness of democracy, corruption of capitalism; promised vigorous foreign and military programs; undertook state control of economy to reduce social friction. (p 710)
Mussolini Benito
Italian fascist leader after World War I; created first fascist government based on aggressive foreign policy and new nationalist glories.
Economic and political system based on the organization of labor; imported in Latin America from European political movements; militant force in Latin American politics
Executive committee of the Soviet Communist party; 20 members.
Socialist Realism
Attempt within the USSR to relate formal culture to the masses in order to avoid the adoption of Western European cultural forms; begun under Joseph Stalin; fundamental method of Soviet fiction, art, and literary criticism.
Five year Plan
Stalin's plans for the development of the Soviet Union's economy. government would take drastic steps to promote rapid industrial growth and to strengthen national defense. Set impossibly high quotas to increase the output of steel, coal, oil and electricity
Peron Juan D
Military leader in Argentina who became dominant political figure after military coup in 1943; used position as Minister of Labor to appeal to working groups and the poor; became president in 1946; forced into exile in 1955; returned and won presidency in 1973.
Vargas Getulio
Elected president of Brazil in 1929; launched centralized political program by imposing federal administrators over state governments; held off coups by communists in 1935 and fascists in 1937; imposed a new constitution based on Mussolini's Italy; leaned to communists after 1949; committed suicide in 1954.
Cardenas Lazaro
President of Mexico from 1934 to 1940; responsible for redistribution of land, primarily to create ejidos, or communal farms; also began program of primary and rural education.
Political ideology that emphasized the organic nature of society and made the state a mediator, adjusting the interests of different social groups; appealed to conservative groups in European and Latin American societies and to the military.
Spanish Civil War
War pitting authoritarian and military leaders in Spain against republicans and leftists between 1936 and 1939; Germany and Italy supported the royalists; the Soviet Union supported the republicans; led to victory of the royalist forces.
the secret police in Nazi Germany; Known for brutal tactics
Totalitarian State
A new kind of goverment in the 20th century that exercised massive, direct control over virutally all the activites of it's subjects; existed in Germany, Italy and the Soviet Union
New Deal
President Franklin Roosevelt's precursor of the modern welfare state (1933-1939); programs to combat economic depression enacted a number of social insureance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of the state and the state's intervention in U.S. social and economic life.
Popular Front
Combination of Socialist and Communist political parties in France; won election in 1936; unable to take strong of social reform because of continuing strength of conservatives; fell from power in 1938
Great Depression
International economic crisis following the First World War; began with collapse of American stock market in 1929; actual causes included collapse of agricultural prices in 1920s; included collapse of banking houses in the United States and western Europe, massive unemployment; contradicted optimistic assumptions of 19th century.
Long March
Communist escape from Hunan province during civil war with Guomindang in 1934; center of Communist power moved to Shaanxi province; firmly established Mao Zedong as head of the Communist party in China.
Whampoa Military Academy
Founded in 1924; military wing of the Guomindang; first head of the academy was Chiang Kai-shek.
Chinese Nationalist party founded by Sun Yat-sen in 1919; drew support from local warlords and Chinese criminal underworld; initially forged alliance with Communists in 1924; dominated by Chiang Kai-shek after 1925
Mao Zedong
Communist leader in revolutionary China; advocated rural reform and role of peasantry in Nationalist revolution; influenced by Li Dazhao; led Communist reaction against Guomindang purges in 1920s, culminating in Long March of 1934; seized control of all of mainland China by 1949; initiated Great Leap Forward in 1958.
May Fourth Movement
Resistance to Japanese encroachments in China began on this date in 1919; spawned movement of intellectuals aimed at transforming China into a liberal democracy; rejected Confucianism.
Yaun Shi Kai
Warlord in northern Chian after fall of Qing dynasty; hoped to seize imperial throne; president of China after 1912; resigned in the face of Japenesse invasion in 1916
Creation of large, state-run farms rather than individual holdings; allowed more efficient control over peasants; part of Stalin's economic and political planning; often adopted in other Communist regimes.