What commodities were traded between all three zones of the Asian sea-trading network?
-precious stones -spices -ivory -silk and cotton textiles
What two characteristics of the Asian trade network were critical to European attempts to control and dominate it?
the absence of both central authority and heavily-armed merchant shipping
What became the key components of the Portuguese trading empire in Asia?
ships and naval stations
Which two northern European powers succeeded in eclipsing the Portuguese and installing themselves as dominant forces in Asian naval trade?
England and Holland
What form did tribute payment to Europeans take in southeast Asia?
agricultural produce
Zhu Yuanzhang, founder of the Chinese Ming dynasty, originated from which social group?
rural peasants
What development was crucial to significant population growth in the Yangtze and south China regions under the Ming emperors?
The introduction of American food crops such as corn, sweet potatoes, and peanuts dramatically improved Chinese diet and nutrition.
Knowledge and expertise of which aspects of Western culture allowed Jesuit missionaries access into the Ming imperial court?
science and technology
What commodity brought by European traders contributed significantly to Japanese unification?
What commodities did the Japanese exchange for goods brought by European and Chinese traders?
-lacquer ware -silver -copper -pottery
What type of navigation technique was predominant throughout the Asian sea-trading network?
What strategy did the Portuguese decide on to gain entry into the Asian trade network?
What factors led to the failure of Portuguese attempts to monopolize the Asian spice trade?
-heavy shipping losses due to overloading and design flaws -lack of numbers of ships and men -poor military discipline and rampant corruption -resistance and competition from Asian and European rivals
In which other region did political structures closely resemble the tribute regimes established by Europeans in Ceylon, Java, and the Philippines?
Spanish America
Which region in Asia proved most successful for Christian missionary efforts?
the northern Philippines
What reforms did Hongwu initiate that were designed to limit corruption and factional intrigue within the imperial court and government?
-He limited the number and powers of imperial court eunuchs, and exiled potential rivals to the countryside. -He abolished the powerful post of chief minister and transferred that office's powers to the emperor. -He decreed that the emperor's wives could only come from humble origins. -He introduced public, sometimes fatal, beatings on the buttocks for bureaucrats found guilty of corruption or incompetence.
Which two coastal cities were the only places Europeans were legally allowed to conduct business in Ming China?
Canton and Macao
Which daimyo leader ended a renewed period of Japanese civil war in 1603 C.E. when the emperor proclaimed him shogun?
Tokugawa Ieyasu
Why did Nobunaga initially welcome Christian missionaries in Japan?
He perceived them as a counterforce to militant Buddhist orders that opposed his rise to power.
What concerns motivated Hideyoshi and his successors to begin persecuting Japanese Christians?
concern over the potential threat Christianity posed to the established social order
The discovery of a route to the fabled Indies by de Gama was a great victory over...
De Gama's voyage to Asia...
...had little impact on Asia.
Which of the following Asian products was most in demand in the Asian sea trading network?
Because they could not get goods through fair trade,...
...the Portuguese used force.
In the Asian sea trading network,...
...the Portuguese sought a monopoly.
Encouraged by __________, the Spanish took control of the Philippines in the 1560s.
the pope
Robert di Nobili's goal was to...
...Christianize high-caste Hindus.
Zhu declared himself Hongwu emperor in...
Zhu was suspicious of...
...the scholar-gentry.
Which of the following statements regarding women in the Ming period is NOT true?
A courtesan was another name for a prostitute.
The most significant cultural development of the Ming period was...
...the full development of the Chinese novel.
The prime targets of Jesuit missionaries in China were/was...
...the emperor
The Ming dynasty, as it was in internal disorder, was subject to invasions by the...
Who was able to unify central Honshu?
Ieyasu banned Christianity in Japan in...
Exchanges within the Asian sea trading networks were usually peaceful.
During the Ming period, the subordination of women to men was relaxed.
Edo later became the city of Tokyo.
The school of national learning placed great emphasis on China's unique history.
The Filipinos' brand of Christianity was a creative mix of their traditional beliefs with Christianity.
Asian sailors quickly put down Portuguese forces, which appeared suddenly in Asian waters.
Nobunaga persecuted Jesuit missionaries in Japan.
The Chinese committed to sailing around the world before the Europeans.
Chongzen emerged triumphant and seized power after Hideyoshi's death.
Those in the east were eager to trade with de Gama for Portuguese goods.
When the Portuguese arrived in India in 1498, they...
...found they had little to offer in trade, but could get rich by forcing themselves into the existing trade network.
Which of the following characterized the Asian trading system as the first Europeans encountered it?
The Indian Ocean trade was dominated by Muslim merchants.
What circumstances prevented the Portuguese from establishing a monopoly over the Asian spice trade?
Portugal was a small nation and lacked the ships and manpower needed to overcome its Asian and European competition.
What Asian society witnessed the largest percentage of its population converted to Christianity?
the Philippines
he raw material with the broadest demand and highest price was...
...spices from the East Indies.
Following the defeat and expulsion of the Mongols from China,...
...Chinese manufacturing expanded further.
In the 17th century, the Japanese dealt with the startling arrival of the Europeans to East Asia by...
...self-imposed isolation and forbidding most contact with Europeans.