city at height of power in 600. Had religious architecture aligned w/mountains and stars. Had Chinampas. No single ruler, instead ruled by elite families or puppet kings. Collapse through either fighting or conflict within.
"floating gardens" islands of muck heaped in lakes that permitted year-round agriculture to support population => art, trade.
in Cuatemala, Honduras, Belize and south Mexico. never unified politically, had rival kingdoms. Intensified agriculture, had cosmos of 3 layers, religious meaning in warfare, and a calendar. Many urban centers destroyed 800-900, from either warfare or trade disruption, social conflict over lack of food.
Central Mexico. Falsely credited with all achievements of Mesoamerican world. First conquest state based on military, with capitol Tula. Two kings ruled together, and empire declined after one of the kings, Topiltzin, was exiled.
After Toltecs. Originally serfs/mercenaries, then relocated to Lake Texcoco and built twin capitols. Fed large urban population by organizing clan labor and tribute system. A king had to prove his worth by conquest, and human sacrifice was large.
one of the Aztecs twin capitols on islands in Lake Texcoco that combined to become Mexico City. Other city was Tlatelolco.
The Aztecs got 1/4 of the city's food from this, as well as cotton, military equip., jade and feathers, and sacrificial victims
Navajo term meaning "ancient ones" identifies similar desert cultures in Four Corners region. Economy based on maize, beans and squash; lived in underground buildings called kivas. Largest community was in Chaco Canyon.
In Mississippi, the hereditary leader had religious and secular duties. Example Cahokia.
system of knotted cords used for administration and tributes in Andean civilizations.
clan in Andean civilizations.
rotational labor draft in Andean civilizations that organized ayllu members to work for the royals, building roads, bridges, temples, irrigation, etc.
In Andean highlands, vast drainage projects/raised fields. Finely cut stone didn't need mortar. May have been precursor to Inca state. Small full time population, it was a ceremonial center.
450 miles NW of Tiwanaku. May have been dependent on other empire, or joint empire. Both declined 1000 C.E.
"Land of Four Corners". In valley of Cuzco, they conquered to further vertical exchange system. Used llamas and alpacas. Inca roads(and everything) built on mit'a.Took hostages from conquered.
Conquered China and made an empire with specialized skills flourishing, high taxes, and trade markets expanded.
Temüjin, but name means Supreme Leader.
Gave rise to imperial expansion. Where menial work was done by slaves, food was by self-sufficiency and people depended on settled regions for grain, cotton and ironworking.
Founded by Khubilai Khan in 1271. Destroyed Southern Song and had superior bows.
passed from Tang, to Mongol garrison, to central China, to caravans, to Europe and Egypt. Peace and trade gave rise to pandemic.
(Kipchak Khanate) on Sarai on the Volga River. Muslim vs. Il-khan's non-muslimity.
(Tamerlane in Europe) in command of Jagadai and saw himself as new Genghis Khan. Sacked Dephi and defeated Ottoman Empire's sultan. Descendants couldn't hold empire together.
Ghazan's prime minister who attempted first history of the world.
Nasir al-Din Tusi
laid foundations for new algebra and trig. Observatory built for him to solve cosmology problem.
prince of Novgorod persuaded submission to Mongols => were favored, along with son Daniel's town of Moscow.
from "ceasar". Ivan III, prince of Moscow, called himself this even though it had applied only to foreign rulers previously.
Descended from Turkic nomads. Situated near Sea of Marma, meaning they involved in Byzantine and Muslim affairs. They emphasized religious and linguistic identity.
Yuan Empire founder. Gave his oldest son a Chinese name, involved Confucianism, and convinced Buddhists and Daoists that he was on their side.
Buddhist priests from Tibet became popular with some rulers. Idea of militant universal ruler with the whole rule under Buddha's control.
Yuan capitol. Eastern terminus of caravan routes. Called Great Capitol (Dadu) or City of the Khan (khan-balikh /Cambaluc) w/Chinese styled walls, artificial islands and lakes made Forbidden City.
1368-1500 Founded by monk/soldier/bandit Zhu Yuanzhang under name Hongwu.
imperial prince who seized power in Ming Dynasty. Enlarged the Forbidden City, moved capitol from Nanjing to Beijing, and restored commercial links with Middle East.
Muslim Chinese who traveled far by sea. Sponsored by Emperor Yongle.
Korean ruling kingdom that rejected Mongol period publicly, but retained their techniques. Also revived studying Confucian classics.
"wind of the Gods" in Japanese. Credited for driving away the Mongols in a typhoon when they attacked in 1281.
Shogunate that took control at Kyoto when Go-Diago led to civil war destroying Kamakura Shogunate. Had Zen Buddhism, Champa rice, water wheels, Sesshu Toyo, No theater. Competition between warlords made it a govt. in name only.