Sultanate of Delhi
Major Turkic Muslim state established in northern India in 1206
Islamic mystics, many of whom were important missionaries of Islam in conquered lands and who were revered as saints
A significant syncretic religion that evolved in India, blending elements of Islam and Hinduism. Founded by Guru Nanak
Islamic religious scholars
Great city of West Africa, noted as the center of Islamic scholarship in the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries
Islamic law, dealing with all of matters of both secular and religious life
Sufi teachers who attracted a circle of disciples and often founded individual schools of Sufism
Marco Polo
The most famous European traveler of the Middle Ages whose travel account of his time in China was widely popular in Europe
Rightly Guided Caliphs
The first our rulers of the Islamic world after the death of Muhammad
The most holy text of Islam, recording the revelations given to the prophet Muhammad
Christians who adopted much of Arabic culture and observed many Muslim practices without actually converting to Islam
Muhammad Ibn Abdulah
The Prophet of Islam (570-632ce)
Pillars of Islam
The five core practices required of Muslims a profession of faith, regular prayer, charitable giving, fasting during Ramadan and a pilgrimage to Mecca
Key pilgrimage center in Arabia that became the birthplace of Islam
The name adopted by Muhammad and his followers to describe their submission to God
Leaders with high authority; the twelve imams of early Shia Islam were Muhammad's nephew Ali and his descendents
Formal colleges for higher instruction in the teachings of Islam as well as in secular subjects, founded throughout the Islamic world
The spiritual striving of each Muslim towards godly life and armed struggle against the forces of unbelief and evil
Great stone shrine in Mecca that was a major pilgrimage center for worshipers of many deities before it was reconsecrated to monotheistic use
Special tax paid by dhimmis in Muslim-ruled territory in return for freedom to practice their own religion
House of Wisdom
An academic center for research and translation of foreign texts that was established in Baghdad by the Abbasid caliph al-Mamun
Ibn Sina
One of the greatest polymaths of the Islamic world, a Persian who wrote prolifically on scientific and philosophical issues
The pilgrimage to Mecca enjoined on every Muslim who is able to make the journey
The flight of Muhammad and his original seventy followers from Mecca to Yathrib
Traditions past on about the sayings or actions of Muhammad and his immediate followers