About how long has the human species existed?
about 2 or 2.5 million years
List the drawbacks of the human species:
unusually aggressive against own kind, babies are dependent for long time, certain ailments such as back problems, aware of inevitability of death
List the features of human species that allow for success:
opposable thumbs, relatively high and regular sex drive, omnivorous, variety of facial expressions, distinctive brain and facility for elaborate speech
When did the Paleo Age begin?
2.5 million years ago
When did the Paleo Age end?
14,000 years ago
Why was the Stone Age called what it was?
Stones were used as tools for hunting and warfare
How did people obtain food in the Stone Age?
hunting and gathering
When was fire tamed?
750,000 years ago
When did Homo Sapiens sapiens appear?
about 120,000 years ago
Food source during Late Paleo?
hunted meat and gathered fruit and vegetables
Size of groups during Late Paleo?
Type of work women did during Late Paleo?
gathered fruit and vegetables
Was there equality between sexes during Late Paleo?
Yes, based on common economic contribution
How were tools made during Late Paleo?
began with crude shaping of stone and wooden implements
Types of materials used to make tools during Late Paleo?
stone and wood
Religion during Late Paleo?
rituals, cave paintings, goddesses
Why did rituals develop?
to lessen the fear of death
Communication during Late Paleo?
developed speech
Why was speech develop so important?
It provided rich language and symbols for transmission of culture and its growing sophistication.
What was the greatest achievement of Paleolithic people?
the sheer spread of human species over much of earth's surface
Where did the human species originate?
eastern Africa
Why did they the human species begin to migrate?
they were forced by the need to find scarce food
What 2 things allowed Paleo people to live in colder climates?
fire and the use of animal skins as clothing
When did the 1st people out of Africa migrate?
750,000 years ago
1st people out of Australia?
60,000 years ago
1st humans in Britain?
250,000 years ago
1st people from Siberia to Alaska?
30,000 years ago
When did Mesolithic Age occur?
about 12,000 to 10,000 BCE
What changed/improved with the end of the Ice Age?
human development began to accelerate
Why did more wars occur at the end of the Ice Age?
population growth rapidly increased
The final stone age is called?
Neolithic Age
What was invented during the Neolithic Age?
agriculture and cities
What is the Neolithic Revolution?
the succession of technological innovations and changes in human organization that led to the development of agriculture, 8500-3500 BCE
The Neo Revolution begun as early as?
9000 BCE
The Neo Revolution gained ground rapidly after?
the development of agriculture
How did the invention of agriculture change where people live?
settled in one spot and focused on particular goals and activities
How did the invention of agriculture change jobs?
more regular work was required
How did the invention of agriculture change population?
increased from about 6 to 8 million to about 100 million some 3000 years later
How did the invention of agriculture change animals?
some animals were domesticated
Did the Neo Revolution occur during the prehistoric times?
technically yes
Tools used during the Neo Revolution?
basket-making and pottery was developed
Inventions during Neo Revolution?
potter's wheel
Did the Neo Revo. occur at the same time globally?
no, it gradually spread
Where did farming begin?
in the Middle East
Why did some people resist the farming lifestyle?
They found it too complicated, too difficult, or too unexciting
When did farming begin in the Americas?
about 5000 BCE
How did the invention of agriculture lead to the Bronze Age?
metal tools were discovered
When did the Bronze Age begin?
4000 BCE
Why is it called the Bronze Age?
copper and bronze were the first metals used and were used as tools
How did farming change by the Bronze Age and why?
Metal hoes and other tools made farming work more efficient
Why did agricultre encourage more stable human communities?
More food is available so people can focus on other developments
Why did most hunting peoples not settle in a single spot?
game would run out
List 3 advantages to staying put:
houses could be built to last, wells could be built to bring up water, other "expensive" improvements could be afforded b/c they would serve many generations
Why did the need to control a river's flow encourage villages?
Irrigation and defense is the characteristic pattern of residence in almost all agricultural societies.
What year was Catal Huyuk founded?
about 7000 BCE
What year did Catal Huyuk become a civilization?
3000 BCE
Why do historians believe people in Catal Huyuk spent a lot of time on their roof tops?
to experience daylight and make social contacts
How is a civilization different than an agricultural society?
writing system, cities, institutions, technologies, skilled workers
How did people of civilizations feel about non-civilized folks?
they look down at them
What did the Greeks call non-Greek people?
Who had it better people living in civilizations or non-civilized groups? Why?
Non-civilized because they weren't ruled by a higher class and had more equality between sexes.
How did non-civilized groups contribute to world history?
they domesticated animals, depended on technological improvements,traded worldwide, developed contacts in settled areas
Non-civilized or civilizd groups had more impact on the environment?
Civilized groups by causing deforestation that destroyed the fuel supply. Extensive farming opened land to erosion and flooding b/c of overuse of soil and tree removal
Around 3500 BCE civilizations developed in what 4 centers:
Middle East, Egypt, northwest India, northern China
What did all the 4 centers of civilization establish on?
on the achievements of the river valley pioneers
List River Valley Civilizations achievements that have been fundamental to the world?
major monuments, invention of the wheel, taming of the horse, creation of usable alphabets and writing implements, key math concepts such as square roots, well-organized monarchies and bureaucracies, invention of functional calendars, invention of other divisions of time
By what date had most of the river valley civilizations declined?
1000 BCE
Why did India suffer a break between the old river civilization and classical civilization?
it received new waves of invasion
Why did China not suffer a break between the old river civilization and classical civilization?
The new Zhou dynasty took over right after the Shang dynasty stepped down
What did the Greeks acquire from Egypt or Mesopotamia?
Egyptian mathematics, idea about slavery, techniques of measuring time, techniques of charting the stars, Mesopotamian art, Egyptian architecture, Egyptian temple building, regional cultures
How did Mesopotamia and the Chinese differ on their view of nature?
Mesopotamians stressed a gap between humankind and nature, whereas the Chinese developed ideas of basic harmony
As the great empires from Sumer to Egypt were declining and disrupted, what developed?
Civilization in the Middle East had spread widely enough to encourage small cultures capable of surviving and flourishing after great empires weakened.
Which small group simplified the alphabet with 22 letters around 1300 BCE?
the Phoenicians
The Phoenician alphabet became the predecessor of what 2 alphabets?
the Greek and Latin alphabets
Which small group first introduced coined money?
the Lydians
Why were the Jews the most influential of the small groups?
They introduced the first clearly developed monotheistic religion.
How was the Jewish religion different?
Most early religions were polytheistic
When did the Jews settle around the Mediterranean?
around 1200 BCE
When did they begin to suffer from foreign rulers?
772 BCE
Who seized the Jews' state outright and when?
in 63 BCE by the Romans
Why was there no premium on converting non-Jews?
Judaism stressed God's special compact with the chosen Jewish people
What happened to the India civilization?
it suffered from invasions and natural calamities
What happened to the Huanghe civilization?
it transitioned into more extensive Chinese civilization that would follow
What happened to the Middle East civilization?
Egypt suffered from invasions and political decline. Other parts of the Middle East undercame the development of smaller cultures such as the Jews
What was trade like 1000 BCE?
Trade routes with great distances were developed as different cities and civilizations traded with each other.
How did the rise of civilizations affect local autonomy?
it reduced as kings and priests tried to spread trade contacts and cultural forms and fought in wars to gain new territory