a government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility
One who works for a department or agency of the federal government - civil servant, not elected, appointed by a leader and approved by the senate
the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth
the territorial jurisdiction of a caliph
the medieval knight's code of ideal behavior, including bravery, loyalty, and respect for women
Civil Service
government workers
An arrangement to receive cash, goods, or services now and pay for them in the future.
Cultural Diffusion
the spread of cultural elements from one society to another
the process of dispersing decision-making governance closer to the people and/or citizen
money or property brought by a woman to her husband at marriage
Eastern Orthodox
The Christian religion of the Byzantine Empire in the middle east that formed from Christianity's schism between the remains of the western and eastern Roman Empire. The Christian church ruled by the Byzantine emperor and the patriarchs of various historically significant Christian centers/cities.
pieces of land given to vassals by their lord
A place where a group of soldiers is stationed for defensive purposes (e.g. along the Silk Roads)
a style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries
the fifth pillar of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca during the month of Dhu al-Qadah
the crime of holding a belief that goes against established doctrine
a person who holds unorthodox opinions in any field (not merely religion)
the custom in some Islamic societies of women dressing modestly outside the home (e.g. veils and head scarfs)
born of parents who are not married to each other; illegal
the stock of basic facilities and capital equipment needed for the functioning of a country or area
a mutual or reciprocal action
an official investigation; a severe interrogation (often violating the rights or privacy of individuals)
an instance of questioning
the religion of Muslims collectively which governs their civilization and way of life
able to read and write
a female head of a family or tribe
based on or tracing descent through the female line
relating to or belonging to the Middle Ages
the belief that rulers should be chosen for their superior abilities and not because of their wealth or birth
Middle Ages
The historical period from around 500 A.D. up to around 1450 A.D. between the fall of Rome and the birth of the Renaissance
the movement of persons from one country or locality to another
Monetary System
anything that is generally accepted as a standard of value and a measure of wealth in a particular country or region
Muslim house of worship
a believer or follower of Islam
A country who's population share a common identity.
traditional; (of someone) conservative in belief; adhering to an established doctrine
the male head of family or tribe
male led society and household
the act of persecuting (especially on the basis of race or religion)
someone who journeys to another place
a journey to a sacred place
right of inheritance belongs exclusively to the eldest son
Roman Catholic
The Christian religion of Europe that formed from Christianity's schism between the remains of the western and eastern Roman Empire; based in the Vatican and presided over by a pope and an episcopal hierarchy
division of a group into opposing factions (e.g. a schism in a religious group)
providing privacy or seclusion; isolated
a person who lived on and farmed a lords land in feudal times
willing to submit without resistance to authority
lower in rank or importance; subservient
spanning or crossing a continent
Tribute System
payment made by one nation to another in acknowledgment of submission
Baghdad, Iraq
Capital city of Iraq. As heart of the Arab Empire, it was second only to Constantinople in terms of size and grandeur in 1000 C.E.- Capitol of the Abbasid Dynasty
Black Death
the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe
Bubonic Plague
A bacterial disease of fleas that can be transmitted by flea bites to rodents and humans; humans in late stages of the illness can spread the bacteria by coughing. High mortality rate and hard to contain. Disastrous.
Xi'an, China: a city of central China; capital of ancient Chinese empire 221-206 BC, location of Terra Cotta Soldiers; means "perpetual peace"
Previously known as Byzantium, Constantine changed the name of the city and moved the capital of the Roman Empire here from Rome; capital of the Byzantine empire; now called Istanbul
(1095-1291), Christian Europe aim to reclaim Jerusalem and aid they Byzantines; 1st success and the rest a failure; weakens the Byzantines; opens up trade
Empress Wu
She led the T'ang Dynasty (625-705 AD); Only women emperor of China; powerful and cruel, along with talented and intelligent
practice in Chinese society to mutilate women's feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women's movement; made it easier to confine women to the household
Germanic people who lived and held power in Gaul. Their leader was Clovis and he would later bring Christianity to the region. By 511 the Franks had united into one kingdom and they controlled the largest and strongest parts of Europe.
King of the Franks (768-814); founder of first empire in western Europe after the fall of Rome; crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 800 C.E.
Ghengis Khan
He united the Mongols and built the largest empire the world has ever known
Hanseatic League
a group of Northern German cities and towns that worked together to promote and protect trade
Hundred Years War
(1337-1453), conflict between French and English over English ownership of French lands
Code of Justinian
a digest of Roman and church law, and it laid the foundation for modern, western law
Magna Carta
Signed by King John in 1215; the first document in England that limited the power of the government
Mansa Musa
this Mali king brought Mali to its peak of power and wealth from 1312 the 1337; he was the most powerful king in West Africa
term that describes the resurgence of Confucianism and the influence of Confucian scholars during the T'ang Dynasty; a unification of Daoist or Buddhist metaphysics with Confucian pragmatism
Sacking of Constantinople
During the Fourth Crusade (1202-1204), in April 1204, the Crusaders of Western Europe invaded and conquered the Eastern Orthodox city of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire. This is seen as one of the final acts in the Great Schism between the Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic Church.
St. Cyril
created the Cyrillic alphabet which was based off the Greek alphabet; used for writing Slavic languages
Schism in Christianity
(1054) Event that precipitated the final separation between the Eastern Christian churches (led by the patriarch of Constantinople, Michael Cerularius) and the Western Church (led by Pope Leo IX)
Schism in Islam
(650s) The Shia / Sunni split which occurred in the decades immediately following the death of the Prophet Mohammed in 632
Religion located in Japan and related to Buddhism. Shintoism focuses particularly on nature and ancestor worship.
City on the Niger River in the modern country of Mali. It was founded by the Tuareg as a seasonal camp sometime after 1000. As part of the Mali empire, Timbuktu became a major major terminus of the trans-Saharan trade and a center of Islamic learning
Capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed on its ruins.
William the Conqueror
duke of Normandy who led the Norman invasion of England and became the first Norman to be King of England