Geometric krater, from the Dipylon cemetery
Date: 740 BCE Period/Style: Geometric Artist/Architect: Patron: N/A O Location: Athens, Greece Material/Technique: abstract motifs; depicts a funeral; designs are two-dimensional; artist focused on specifying gender, not the accuracy; highly stylized; human figure and narratives revived; women pulling hair out bc they're stressed; artist tried to cover all empty spaces with shapes- circles or M-shaped designs; meander- key, pattern on the rim Function: grave marker; offering to the dead Context: found in the Dipylon cemetery of Athens; now in the MET NY Descriptive terms: geometric, patterns
Plan of Temple A
Date: 625 BCE Period/Style: Geometric Artist/Architect: N/A Patron: N/A O Location: Prinias, Greece Material/Technique: stone, resemble a Mycenaean megaron Function: honors an unknown deity, flat rood, two interior columns, limestone lintel, sculpted decoration Context: facade had thee great piers Descriptive terms: simple, decorated
Date: 600 BCE Period/Style: Archaic Artist/Architect: N/A Patron: N/A O Location: in countryside near Athens Material/Technique: kouros(pl. kouroi)=youth; emulates stance of Egyptian statues; = rigidly frontal, left foot slightly forward; arms on the side of body, fists clenched, thumbs forward; Egyptians- permanence & stability, Greeks- motion; triangular head and hair; flat face (Daedalic style); slim waist; v-shaped ridge of hips; archaic smile: cheeks are chubby, eyes are almond shaped and goofy smile Function: funerary statue; decorative Context: stood over a grave somewhere near Athens; now in the MET, NY Descriptive terms: nude, bronze, detailed, sculpted
Calf Bearer
Date: 560 BCE Period/Style: Archaic period Artist: unknown Patron: Rhonbos O Location: Acropolis, Athens, Greece Material/Technique: marble. An archaic smile that shows that the statue/person is still alive. The archaic smile signified different intentions from their Egyptian counterparts. Function: statue of Rhonbos, the calf bearer himself, bringing an offering to Athena during Thanksgiving for his prosperity. since he is not a Kouros (youth) he should not be depicted as nude. The patterns of an X for unity are shown with Rhonbos and the calf together. Context: stands in the manner of the kouroi, but he has a beard and he is not young. He is clothed with a thin cloak indicating that the mature gentleman is a respectable citizen. The calf and the arms of the bearer make an X shape that unifies the bodies formally and physically. The sculpture is smiling which indicates the Archaic smile technique that shows they are alive. Descriptive terms: peaceful, respectable citizen, symbolized unity, noble perfection of the bearer and calf I
Peplos Kore
Date: 530 BCE Artist: unknown sculptor Period/Style: Archaic period Patron: a maiden, or a goddess like Athena herself. votive offering. O Location: Acropolis, Athens, Greece Material/Technique: marble. sculpted wearing a peplos (simple, long woolen belted garment that gives the appearance of a column). Drapery concealed her entire body, the softer treatment of the flesh sharply differentiates later korai from contemporary kourai. The light linen Ionian chiton worn with the himation (mantle) was a fashionable garment choice for women. Function: votive offering to the goddesses; women are never portrayed nude; made to contrast with the Lady of Auxere; not nude, which indicates respect and importance. Context: stylistic "sister" to the Anavysas kouros. She was buried to preserve her colors from the Persians attacking Acropolis. The Peplos Kore is the latest peplos - clad dedications on the Acropolis. Sculptors rendered intricate patterns created by the cascading folds of thin, soft material. The kore postures are fixed like their male counterparts. Descriptive terms: soft colors, more colorful, natural looking, Archaic smile, broken from the Persians attacking, beautiful.
Temple of Hera I, "Basilica"
Date: 550 BCE Artist/Architect: N/A Period/Style: Archaic Patron: N/A O Location: Paestum, Italy Material/Technique: huge, 80x170 ft; called "Basilica"- after Roman columnar hall building type; central row of columns dividing the cella sets it apart from most Greek temples; interior has many disadvantages: no central statue, no central doorway, capitals compressed by overbearing weight; 18 columns on each side of temple; Doric capitals; heavy-looking design Function: temple for Hera; to glorify Hera Context: Architects at the time were afraid of creating slender capitals from fear that the buildings might collapse; overtime, this formality changed. Descriptive terms: repertitive, stable
Andokides Painter, Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game
Date: 525-520 BCE Artist: Andokides Painter Period/Style: Archaic Patron: N/A O Location: Orvieto, Italy Material/Technique: bilingual, red-figure technique, black glaze used to outline the figures and then colored the background black Function: revolutionized painting Context: Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game Descriptive terms: stands outs, detailed, elegant, expensive
Euphronios, Herakles wrestling Antaios
Date: 510 BCE Artist: Euphronios Period/Style: Archaic Patron: N/A O Location: Orvieto, Italy Material/Technique: thinned glaze to delineate the muscles of both figures, showed that the figures occupied space; rejected composite view and attempted a single viewpoint Function: revolutionized painting Context: depicted stuggle between Herakles and Antaios; calyx crater Descriptive terms: disproportionate, patterns, dominance
East Pediment from the Temple of Zeus
Date: 470-456 BCE Artist: N/A Period/Style: Early/ High Classical Patron: N/A O Location: Olympia,Greece Material/Technique: marble Function: decoration? Context: chariot race between Pelops and King Oinomaos Descriptive terms: detailed, treachery, curse
Dying Warrior, from the west pediment
Date: 500-490 BCE Artist: N/A Period/Style: Greek/Geometric and Archaic Patron: N/A O Location: Aphaia, Aegina, Greece Material/Technique: marble, torso is rigidly frontal, looks out, Function: different than otehrs Context: smiles in spite of punctured chest Descriptive terms: nude, clear, white, soft?
Kritios Boy
Date: 480 BCE Period/Style: Early Classical Artist/Architect: N/A Patron: N/A O Location: Athens, Greece Material/Technique: made of marble; hair is stylized; slight dip to right hip, right leg is bent, head is slightly turned to the right- contrapposto (weight shift)- separates Classical from Archaic Greek; archaic smile is gone Function: decorative, depiction of boy Context: Athens, Greece, now in Acropolis Museum, Athens; Once thought the sculptor Kritios carved it Descriptive terms: plain, simple, white, realistic proportions
Myron, Diskobolos ( Discus Thrower)
Date: 450 BCE Period/Style: Early Classical Artist/Architect: Myron Patron: N/A O Location: Terme, Rome Material/Technique: originally bronze, but original copy is lost; many marble copies; 5'1" high; almost Archaic- profile limbs, nearly frontal chest; right arm reaching apex of the arm, holding a disk; two intersecting arcs: discus to left hand and head to right knee; Function: action statue Context: many marble copies by Romans, original lost; Archaic athletes performed for spectators, but Classical works such as Diskobolos concentrate on what they are doing. Descriptive terms: bronze, action, realistic, muscular
Polykleitos, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer)
Date: 450 BCE Period/Style: Classical Artist/Architect: Polykleitos Patron: N/A O Location:Pompeii, Italy Material/Technique: ideal statue of nude male/athlete; culmination of Greek statuary; contrapposto: right arm and left leg relaxed, head turns to the right, hips twist to the left; dynamis asymmetrical balance Function: depict human movement; Imposes Polykleitan style: to perfect human movement, harmonic proportions, cross balance Context: best replica in Pompeii, Italy Descriptive terms: idealistic, detailed, perfect
Aerial view of the Acropolis
Date: 447-438 BCE Period/Style: High Classical Artist/Architect: Pericle Patron: Pericle? O Location: Athens, Greece Material/Technique: in situ, Function: four bulildings, used for different religions Context: sculptural ornamentation, Descriptive terms: busy, detailed, large
Hermes & Infant Dionysos
Name: Hermes & Infant Dionysos Date: 350 BCE Period/Style: Late Classical Artist/Architect: Praxiteles? Patron: Material/Technique: made of marble; 7'1" high; god gazes dreamily into space; very sensuous; Hermes leans into a tree trunk, holds a grape in temptation for the child (Dionysos- god of the vine/ of wine); Hermes is in "Tyra Banks" - curve of the hip, S-curve Function: decorative or honorary to the gods Context: from Temple of Hera, Olympia, Greece Ideas: depicts human experience that previous statues lacked; maybe a replica of Praxiteles' work or an original work by a son or grandson
Name: Aphrodite of Knidos Date: 350-340 BCE Period/Style: Late Classical Artist/Architect: Praxiteles Patron: Material/Technique: original is carved from Parian marble; retains superhuman beauty, but is more sensuous; made Knidos famous bc he depicted a naked goddess, which was uncommon at the time; about to take a bath; garment is draped over a water pitcher (hydria); shields pelvis with right hand Function: to honor or depict Aphrodite in a more sensual manner Context: was in Tholos, Delphi, Greece Ideas: This statue was very famous at the time--many people would sail just to see it bc it was sensual and beautiful, and it was the first depiction of a nude goddess.
Grave stele of a young hunter
Name: Grave stele of a young hunter Date: 340 BCE Period/Style: Late Classical Artist/Architect: Skopas of Paros Patron: Material/Technique: relief is higher, parts of the figure carved in the round; depicts overt mourning, heads (young boy and dog) dropped in sorrow, father leans in with stick; hunter looks out at viewer Function: narrative to depict intense emotion Context: found near the Ilissos River in Athens Ideas: High classical period depicted works that created emotional bridge between the art and the viewer
Apoxyomenos (Scraper) LATE CLASSICAL/4TH CENTURY
Name: Apoxyomenos (Scraper) Date: 330 BCE Period/Style: Late Classical Artist/Architect: Lysippos Patron: Material/Technique: Full name: Apoxyomenos; 6'9" high; New concept of motion in space; Roman marble copy of bronze original; arms are out, engaging in space; scraping oil off his body; encourages viewers to look at the work from different angles Function: statue to show movement Context: Lysippos stretches proportion to 1:8--more accurate
Theater of Epidauros
Name: Theater of Epidauros Date: 350 BCE Period/Style: Late Classical Artist/Architect: Polykleitos the Younger Patron: Material/Technique: seated on a hillside; cavea was composed of wedge-shaped sections (cunie/ cuneus) of stone benches separated by stairs; auditorium is 387 ft. in diameter; 55 rows; capacity: 12,000 ppl; Function: theater where ancient rites, songs, dances, and plays were performed; projects music well Context: Epidauros, Greece Ideas: uses nature to blend in like the Temple of Hatshepsut
Dying Gaul
Name: Dying Gaul Date: 230-220 BCE Period/Style: Hellenistic Artist/Architect: Epigonos? Patron: Material/Technique: marble copies of bronze original; gauls shown as barbarians with bushy hair, mustaches, and neck bands, but also shown as courageous nobles; gaul dying on large oval shield; very dramatic- pain is shown in his face as he looks down; muscle is exaggerated; Function: mythological depiction Context: Museo Capitolino, Rome (replica) Ideas: drama and suffering is more pronounced than other Gaul sculptures
Barberini Faun
Name: Barberini Faun Date: 230-200 BCE Period/Style: Hellenistic Artist/Architect: Patron: Material/Technique: "sleeping satyr/drunk satyr"; has horns; members of the Dionysos cult; passed out, rough night; overtly sexual; nose thoughtfully done, as well as eyelashes; Pergamene manor; drunk fell asleep on a rock; brows are furrowed Function: antithesis to Classical ideals; decorative Context: Rome, Italy; now in Glyptothek, Munich Ideas: Hellenistic sculptors depicted sleep, unlike Archaic and Classical statues.
Nike of Samothrace
Name: Nike of Samothrace Date: 190 BCE Period/Style: Hellenistic Artist/Architect: Patron: Material/Technique: "Winged Victory"; top of staircase in the Louvre; standing on representation of boat; crowning victory; Athena's partner is Nike; Reliefs; Very realistic; Wind hitting her body; Made of marble; very theatrical; Function: to honor Athena/Nike Context: Samothrace, Greece Ideas: rejection of Polykleitan conception of being very idealized; Hellenistic statues interact with environment
Venus de Milo
Name: Venus de Milo Date: 150-125 BCE Period/Style: Hellenistic Artist/Architect: Alexandros of Antioch-on-the-Meander Patron: Material/Technique: Venus=Aphrodite; Very long torso; Hip is emphasized; Arms are missing; Scantily clad; Would've been holding golden apple=beauty; made of marble; right hand would've been holding the drapery; overtly sexual, but teases the viewer from the drapery of the garment Function: to honor Aphrodite Context: Melos, Greece Ideas: more modestly draped than Aphrodite of Knidos
Old Market Woman
Name: Old Market Woman Date: 150-100 BCE Period/Style: Hellenistic Artist/Architect: Patron: Material/Technique: made of marble; 4' 1/2" high; bringing chickens and basket of fruits and vegetables to the market; impoverished, exahusted; Function: N/A- interest in socialism Context: now in the MET in NY Ideas: reflection of the social life--people could not avoid eachother; the cosmopolitan caused people to constantly see eachother and interact with eachother
Laocoon and Sons
Name: Laocoon and Sons Date: early 1st century Period/Style: Hellenistic Artist/Architect: Athanadoros , Hadesandros, and Polydoros of Rhodes Patron: Material/Technique: made of marble; 7' 10 1/2" high; Laocoon- priest; Shows perfect bodies; Gods were mad so they try to kill him with the snakes; Meant to walk around it; they writhe in pain as they struggle to free themselves from serpents; one serpent bites in Laocoon's hip Function: mythological narrative Context: Rome, Italy Ideas: a second son was added to the this group sculpture to correlate with Vergil's Aenid.