taking too much from the farmed land
grazing the land so heavily that the vegetation is damaged and the ground becomes liable to erosion
an object made by a human being, typically an item of cultural or historical interest
Homo sapiens sapiens
Paloelithic Period
a period of time that began 2.5 million years ago and ended about 10,000 years ago; because stone tools and weapons in this period, it is often called the Stone Age
Neolithic Period
a period of time about 10,000 years ago, as the climate was warming up from an Ice Age, where a collection of social and political developments coalesced
the belief that there is only one God
Bronze Age
generally between 3300 BCE and 2300 BCE, a period of weapon evolution; from stone to copper to bronze
a large society with cities and powerful states
built on the west bank of the Jordan river with artifacts dating 9000 BCE
Catal Huyuk
in present day Turkey; founded in 7500 BCE and existed for 2000 years
a type of cloth or woven fabric
specialization of labor
the process of allowing people to focus on limited tasks
a metal found in a pure state in the ground in
a melted metal composed of tin and copper
a person living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging
the science or practice of farming, including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops and the rearing of animals to provide food, wool, and other products
an amount of something left over when requirements have been met
the process of adapting wild plants and animals for human use
nomadic pastoralism
a way of life based on people moving herds of animals from pasture to pasture
kinship group
several related families that moved together in search of food
a large group of relatives
multiple clans combined
of, relating to, or characteristic of a system of society or government controlled by men
a worker in a skilled trade
a business person who trades in commodities produced by other people in order to earn a profit
social stratification
refers to a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy
the ordained church leader who serves a congregation of believers is called a priest; administer the sacraments, preach, and care for the needs of their congregations