Judiciary Act of 1789
This act established a federal district court in each state and three circuit courts to hear the appeals from the districts, with the supreme court having the final say. (Pg 216)
Bill of Rights
A set of 10 amendments brought forth by James Madison that safeguarded fundamental personal rights, including freedom of speech and religion, and the right to trial by jury. (Pg 216)
Hamilton's Financial Program
As treasury secretary he devised bold politics to enhance national authority and to assist financiers and merchants, he outlined these plans in three reports to Congress. On public credit (January 1790), on a national bank (December 1970) and on manufactures (December 1791). (Pg 216)
Report on Public Credit
Hamilton asked Congress to redeem at face value the $55 million in Confederation securities held by foreign and domestic investors. He believed that as an underdeveloped nation, the United States needed good credit to secure loans.(Pg 216)
Bank of the United States
In December 1790 Hamilton asked Congress to charter this, it would be jointly owned by private stockholders and the national government. He believed it would provide stability to the American economy by making loans,handling government funds and issuing bills of credit. (Pg 218)
Report on Manufactures
1791: Urged the expansion of American manufacturing, and didn't support high protective tariffs that would exclude foreign products. (Pg 218)
The Federalist Party became split regarding Hamilton's financial measures. Most northern Federalists supported Hamilton, while southern Federalists joined a group headed by Madison and Jefferson known as the Democratic Republicans or just the Republicans. (Pg 218)
Proclamation of Neutrality
Issued in 1793 by President Washington, this allowed US citizens to trade with all belligerents of the european war. As neutral carriers, American merchant ships claimed a right to pass through Britain's naval blockade of French ports and American firms quickly took over the lucrative sugar trade between France and its West Indian Islands. (Pg 219)
(1789-1799): this was abolished feudalism and established a constitutional monarchy in France. Many Americans welcomed its creation but it was very controversial. (Pg 219)
Carried a radical democratic ideology, formed political clubs and addressed each other as "citizens". (Pg 219)
Started in 1794 by Pennsylvania farmers to protest Hamilton's excise tax on spirits, this tax had cut demand for the corn whiskey these farmers distilled and bartered fro Eastern Manufacturers. (Pg 219)
A controversial treaty that accepted Britain's right to stop neutral ships and also required the US Government to make full and complete compensation to British merchants for pre-Revolutionary War debts. It was ratified by the Senate in 1795 only by a bare 2/3 majority.
The revolution that was inspired by the French Revolution, in which Haitians led by Toussaint L'Ouverture, seized control of the colony of Saint-Domingue, the revolution created the Atlantic World's first black republic and had a large impact on the US with many people looking to escape the war fleeing.
First Party System
This new stage in American politics was caused by the emergence of the Federalists and the Republicans. It was the first instance of organized political parties. These parties quickly began to look out for themselves rather than the public interest.
When the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand excepted a loan and a bribe from US diplomats to stop seizures of American vessels. John Adams charged that Talleyrand's agents whom he dubbed X, Y, and Z had insulted America's honor. This resulted in cut-off of trade with France and the authorization of American privateering of French vessels.
Part of the Federalist coercive laws which lengthened the residency requirement for American citizenship from five to fourteen years.
Part of the Federalist coercive laws which authorized the deportation of foreigners.
Part of the Federalist coercive laws which prohibited the publication of insults or malicious attacks on the president or members of Congress.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Set forth a states right to interpret the Constitution, asserting that the states had a right to judge the legitimacy of national laws. Came from the states' disapproval of the Sedition and Alien Acts.
Revolution of 1800
The campaign this year degenerated into a bitter, no-holds-barred contest. The Federalists launched personal attacks on Jefferson.
Treaty of Greenville
(1795) After Indian resistance forced a compromise American negotiators acknowledged Indian ownership of the land and in return for various payments, the Western Confederacy ceded most of Ohio.
Native American Assimilation
To dampen further conflicts the U.S. Government encouraged Native Americans to assimilate into white society. Most indians however rejected wholesale assimilation, even those who joined Christian churches retained many ancestral values and religious beliefs.1
Innovation on Eastern Farms
The new farm economy in New York, Ohio and Kentucky forced major changed in eastern agriculture. Unable to compete with lower-priced western grains, farmers in New England switched to potato, which were high yielding and nutritious. This led Middle Atlantic farmers to buy much more efficient farm equipment.
Marbury v. Madison
(1803) This was a case regarding the midnight appointments made by Adams before he left the presidency, specifically William Marbury. Marshall asserted that Marbury had the right to appointment but that the Court didn't have the constitutional power to enforce it.
(1795) The agreement between the United States and Spain that reopened the Mississippi River to American trade and allowed settlers to export crops via the Spanish-held port of New Orleans. This was supported by Jefferson who had long championed settlement in the west. This agreement was later compromised by Napoleon Bonaparte after he signed a secret treaty that returned Louisiana to France and restricted American access to New Orleans. This lead to the purchase of New Orleans.
Napoleon feared an American invasion of Louisiana. Acting with decisiveness, he offered to sell the territory fro $15 million. In 1803 the purchase was made official and it caused Jefferson to reconsider his strict interpretation of the Constitution.
Lewis and Clark
Jefferson wanted information about the recently acquired Louisiana Purchase, it physical features, plant and animal life as well as native peoples. So in 1804 Jefferson sent his personal secretary Meriwether Lewis and William Clark an army officer to explore the region. They traveled for 1,000 miles up the Missouri. Then in 1805 they began their epic 1,300 mile journey into unknown country, they now traveled with Sacagewea. Their report after this journey prompted some Americans to envision a nation that would span the continent.
Conflict in the Atlantic
As Napoleon conquered European counties he cut off their commerce with Britain and seized American merchant ships that stopped in British ports. The British responded with a naval blockade and seized American vessels carrying sugar and molasses from the French West Indies. They also searched American ships and raided their supplies and used also replenished their crews by the process that became known as impressment.
The Embargo of 1807
To protect American interests, Jefferson pursued a policy of peaceful coercion. This act prevented American ships from leaving their home ports until Britain and France stopped restricting U.S. trade. The embargo overestimated the reliance of Britain and France on American shipping and underestimated the resistance of merchants in America.
Battle of Tippecanoe
In November 1811, when Tecumseh went south to seek support from the Chickasaws, Choctaws and Creeks, Harrison took advantage of his absence and attacked Prophetstown. The governor's 1,000 troops and militiamen traded heavy casualties with the confederacy's warriors at this battle and then destroyed the holy village.
War of 1812
This war was a near disaster for the United States. Congress declared war against Britain because it had violated the commercial rights of a neutral nation. While America made the first advancements against Britain in Canada. However in the east militiamen against the war refused to fight and eventually the tide began to turn. By 1813 commerce had been disrupted, the invaders burned down the US Capitol and government buildings. Federalists continued to oppose the war and things seemed to be going very bad. Eventually in 1814 the Treaty of Ghent was signed to retain prewar borders. However, news of the victory had not reached General Jackson's troops so on January 8th, 1815, his troops defended New Orleans and suffered only 13 casualties. This final victory gave a boost to American morale.
Treaty of Ghent
At first American commissioners: John Quincy Adams, Gallatin and Clay demanded territory in Canada and Florida, while British diplomats sought and Indian buffer state between the US and Canada. Both sides quickly realized that these objectives were not worth the cost of prolonged warfare. And on Christmas Eve, 1814 this treaty was signed retaining the prewar borders of the United States.
McCulloch v. Maryland
(1819) When Congress created the Second Bank of the United States in 1816, it allowed the bank to set up state branches that competed with state chartered banks. The Maryland legislature imposed a tax on notes issued by the Baltimore branch of the Second Bank. The Second Bank refused to pay, claiming that the tax infringed in national powers and was therefore unconstitutional. The state's lawyers then invoked Jefferson's argument: that Congress lacked the constitutional authority to charter a bank. And even if a national bank was legitimate the lawyers argued, Maryland could tax it activities within the state.
Gibbons v. Ogden
(1824) The Marshall Court once again asserted the dominance of national over state statues in this case. The decision struck done a New York law granting a monopoly to Aaron Ogden for steamboat passenger service across the Hudson River to New Jersey. Asserting that the constitution gave the federal government authority over interstate commerce, the chief justice sided with Thomas Gibbons who held a federal license to run steamboats between the two states.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
(1819) The court extended its defense of vested property rights in this case. In 1816, New Hampshire's Republican legislature enacted a statue converting Dartmouth College, a royal charter instituted by King George III, in to a public university. Dartmouth trustees opposed the legislation and hired Daniel Webster to plead their case. In the end Marshall Court agreed and upheld Dartmouth's claims.
In 1817 Adams negotiated this treaty which limited American and British naval forces on the Great Lakes. Later in 1818 he concluded another agreement setting the forty-ninth parallel as the border between Canada and the lands of the Louisiana Purchase.
In 1819 this agreement Adams persuaded Spain to cede Florida territory to the United States. In return, the American government accepted Spain's claim to Texas and agreed to a compromise on the Western boundary for the state of Louisiana which had entered the Union in 1812.
In 1823 the president declared that the American continents were no longer subject to further colonization. This policy thirty years became this. In return Monroe pledged he would not interfere in the internal concerns of European nations.