American Exceptionalism
the idea that the United States has a unique destiny to foster democracy and civilization on the world stage
"Remember the Maine"
after the US battle cruiser Maine exploded in Havana harbor, the New York journal rallied its readers, gathering support for the war against Spain
Teller Amendment
an amendment to the 1898 US declaration of war against Spain disclaiming any intention by the US to occupy Cuba
Insular Cases
a set of supreme Court rulings in 1901 that declared that the US Constitution did not automatically extend citizenship to people in acquired territories
Platt Amendment
a 1902 amendment to the Cuban constitution that blocked Cuba from making a treaty with any other country except the US and gave US right to intervene in Cuban affairs
Open Door Policy
a claim put forth by US Secretary of State John Hay that all nations seeking to do business in China should have equal trade access
Root-Takahira Agreement
a 1908 agreement between the US and Japan confirming principles of free oceanic commerce and recognizing Japan's authority over Manchuria
Panama Canal
a canal across the Isthmus of Panama connecting trade between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, opened in 1914
Roosevelt Corollary
the 1904 assertion by President Theodore Roosevelt that the US would act as a policeman in the Caribbean region and intervene in the affairs of nations that were guilty of wrongdoing or impotence in order to protect US
Zimmerman Telegram
1917 intercepted dispatch in which German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmerman urged Mexico to join the Central Powers and promised that if the US entered the war, Germany would help Mexico recover Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, one pushing factor for the US to enter the war
War Industries Board
a federal board established in July 1917 to direct military production, including allocation of resources, conversion of factories to war production, and setting of prices
National War Labor Board
a federal agency founded in 1918 that established an eight-hour day for war workers, endorsed equal pay for women, and supported workers' right to organize
Committee on Public Information
an organization set up by President Woodrow Wilson during WWI to increase support for America's participation in the war
Four-Minute Men
name given to thousands of volunteers enlisted by the Committee on Public Information to deliver short pro war speeches at movie theaters
Sedition Act of 1918
wartime law that prohibited any words or behavior that might promote to the United States or help in the cause of its enemies
Great Migration
the migration of over 400,000 African Americans from the rural South to the industrial cities of the North during and after WWI
National Woman's Party
a political party founded in 1916 that fought for an Equal Rights Amendment to the US Constitution in the early twentieth century
Fourteen Points
principles for a new world order proposed in 1919 by President Woodrow Wilson as a basis for peace negotiations at Versailles. Among them were open diplomacy, freedom of the seas, free trade, territorial integrity, arms reduction, national self determination, and creation of the League of Nations
League of Nations
the international organization bringing together world governments to prevent future hostilities, proposed by President Woodrow Wilson in the aftermath of World War I, although the league of nations did form, the US never became a member state
Treaty of Versailles
the 1919 treaty that ended WWI, the agreement redrew the map of the world, assigned Germany sole responsibility for the war and it saddled it with debt of $33 billion in war damages
Theodore Roosevelt
26th president of the US from 1901-1909. Republican who became a driving force of the Progressive Era and supported WWI involvement.
Alfred Mahan
Wrote "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History" and helped shape the strategic thought of navies across the world.
Queen Liliuokalani
Last monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii, which was overthrown during her reign.
Emilio Aguinaldo
First president of the Philippines who led the Philippine force first against Spain and then against the US.
Porfirio Diáz
Served 7 terms as the President of Mexico and promoted modernization and economic growth. Also served as General of the Mexican troops.
Woodrow Wilson
Democratic 28th president of the US. Served as President of Princeton University and governor of New Jersey. Lead the Progressive movement.
Herbert Hoover
Republican 31st president of the US. Became known throughout the country for his humanitarian relief efforts during WWI. Believed in the Efficiency Movement. Worked to combat the Great Depression.
Alice Paul
Women's rights activist who led the campaign for the 19th Amendment to the US Constitution, which granted women the right to vote. Also served in the National Woman's Party and organized the Silent Sentinels.