Let me tell you a story of two young lovers torn apart by the wrath of their
parents... oh, you've heard this one already? How about the story of the evil
villain plotting to overthrow his king? Heard that one too? Surprisingly enough,
these stories came into creation over two hundred years ago. The wonder lies not
in the stories, but in the man behind them. William Shakespeare is really the
defining icon for modern literature. Because of his plays, prose, and poems; the
works of Shakespeare are considered to be some of the finest literature ever
written. His stories established a foundation off which thousands of dramas,
romances, and histories have been based. During his fifty-two year life,
Shakespeare produced plays that have been the models for books and movies for
hundreds of years. One of Shakespeare's outstanding points as a writer was his
colorful mastery of the English language, which was nothing short of genius.

Shakespeare's keen annotations into the 16th century granted historians a
glimpse into traditional 16th century life. The one quality in Shakespeare's
writing that never fails to astound me is his ability at capturing the essence
of human passion and feeling. My goal for this paper is to convince you, reader,
that William Shakespeare had the greatest affect on the future of modern
literature. Wish me luck. Before I begin to verify my thesis, I shall give you
little history of the Shakespeare family. William's family was fairly well off,
and their wealth fluctuated as according to John Shakespeare's income. John
Shakespeare was William's father. John Shakespeare came to Stratford from
Snitterfield some time before 1532. He came as a leather tanner's apprentice,
although he later became involved in dealing wool and farm products. In 1582,
Shakespeare married Mary Arden, William's mother. Throughout William's life,
John had a number of professions, but was predominantly a trader in farm
products and wool. Prior and after William's birth, John Shakespeare was an
exceptional member of the Stratford community. He was elected to several high
civic positions, such as ale-taster to the borough, chamberlain of the borough,
alderman, chief alderman, and high bailiff, or mayor. However, by 1578, John
Shakespeare was behind in his taxes and became an absentee on the civic council.

Finally, he was forced to mortgage his wife's estate; and was even fined for
missing church. John Shakespeare's business ventures would affect William's
future. John began as a leather tanner, became a farm products and wool dealer,
and later a justice of the peace. However, luckily for literature, it was John's
later financial difficulties that would prevent William from becoming an
apprentice to his father. The now world-renowned author began his life with
humble beginnings. William Shakespeare was born in Stratford-upon-Avon,
Warwickshire, on April 26, 1564, (St. George's Day) to John and Mary
Shakespeare. William's accepted birthplace was John Shakespeare's home on Henley
Street. William faced many obstacles while growing up, and was lucky to have
lived till adulthood at all. During Shakespeare's childhood, plague and
pestilence was running rampant throughout England and Europe. Although we are
certain William did survive childhood, little information is known about
William's education. It is assumed he began Stratford Grammar School, because of
its proximity to his house, and because of John Shakespeare's social status. If
Shakespeare did attend school there, he would have learned reading and writing
from a hornbook. This would be an accomplishment, since most scholars believe
both John and Mary Shakespeare were illiterate. Assuming William did attend
Stratford Grammar School, he would have been trained in English literature as
well as been familiarized with Latin authors such as Seneca, Cicero, Ovid,
Virgil, and Horace. Shakespeare's grasp of Latin evidently expanded beyond what
he was taught in school, for both his Latin vocabulary as well as grammar is
both used cleverly and eloquently in his writings. Aside from Latin, Shakespeare
had the tendency to incorporate events from his own life into his writings. In
some of his later stories, William recounts events which are taken as those from
his own childhood schooling. Unfortunately, because of his father's financial
troubles, William had to be removed from Stratford Grammar School at the age of
thirteen. After being removed from school, fragmented sources say William worked
for a butcher as well as helping his father with his business. After Shakespeare
left school at 13, and before he re-emerged as an actor in the late 1580's,
historians have no firm ideas of what was happening in his life. This period in
Shakespeare's life was known as the "lost period." The next
significant event Shakespeare's life was his marriage to Anne Hathaway in 1582;
Shakespeare registered a marriage license in the Episcopal Church in Worchester
for himself and Anne. When Shakespeare married Hathaway, she was eight years his
elder, and Hathaway was already several months pregnant. After the couple
married, Anne moved into the home of John Shakespeare on Henley Street, as was
custom at the time. For some reason, this greatly aggravated the tenant sharing
the house with the Shakespeare's, actor Richard Burbage. A fight ensued between
Shakespeare and Burbage, (how Shakespearian) and Shakespeare would not allow
Burbage to abandon his lease. After the fight between Burbage and Shakespeare,
Burbage sued Shakespeare until both sides agreed to release Burbage from the
lease. Hathaway and Shakespeare lived contentedly in John Shakespeare's house
after the trial until the birth of their children. On May 26, 1583, when
Shakespeare was nineteen years old, he became a father. His first child was a
girl, Susanna. Two years later, on February 2, 1585, Hathaway gave birth to
twins, Hamnet and Judith. The twins were named after the Shakespeare's
neighbors, the baker Hamnet and his wife Judith. Sadly, on August 11, 1596,
Hamnet, at the age of eleven, died. Passages from plays give us little insight
on Shakespeare's reaction to Hamnet's passing. "How I may be deliver'd of
these woes, and teaches me to kill or hang myself." (King John 1595) By the
early 1590's, Shakespeare was a distinguished playwright and player in London,
and probably worked for an acting company. So begins the literary and dramatic
influence of William Shakespeare. (www.shakespeare-online.com 1-6) The works of
Shakespeare can be divided into four periods of literary development. Each
period was characterized by Shakespeare's elaboration in his writing, and his
development in his personal style. The first period of Shakespeare's writing
career was really his experimental stage. Shakespeare followed traditional
formatting, and did not venture beyond what was considered typical writing in
the 16th and 17th centuries. Most of Shakespeare's works in the first period
were chronicle history plays. These were basically plays based on facts
chronicling the life of a person, or in the case of Shakespeare, most likely a
king. The first period was also characterized by Shakespeare's plays concerning
the Lancastrian and Yorkist kings. This allowed Shakespeare's plays to be more
factual than fictitious, and contain valuable insight into the royal histories
of the time. 'Henry VI, Parts I, II, and III,' (1595) 'King John' (1596) and
'Richard III' (1598) are all based on the lives and times of the kings
themselves. Because many of the kings' lives were corrupt and violent, not a bit
of drama was lost on these plays. Shakespeare' second period began in the mid
and late 1590's, while he was still working in London. During the second period,
Shakespeare's writing became very individualized, and he strayed from
traditional writing methods. The second period included mainly tragedies and
comedies, and experimentation with mixing the two to give a greater depth to the
humanity of the characters. Two of his most famous tragedies were written during
the second period, 'Romeo and Juliet,' (1595) and 'Julius Caesar.' Although
Shakespeare did progress in his writing, he retained some characteristics from
the first period, such as continuing the chronicle dramas, as is demonstrated by
'Julius Caesar.' Shakespeare's comedies blossomed during his second period, and
characters took on whole new meanings. Shakespeare's comedic characters really
distinguished themselves from his other characters, and at the same time,
broadened Shakespeare's literary perception of humanity. The comedic characters
in Shakespeare's plays each are well-developed personalities, each possessing
foibles and strengths. The interesting thing about this is, in Shakespeare's
tragedies, his characters resemble his comedic characters, in that they each
contain strengths and weaknesses that affected the outcome of the characters, as
well as the play. Several notable comedies that Shakespeare wrote during the
second period were 'A Midsummer's Night Dream,' (1595) 'As You Like It,' (1599)
and 'Much Ado About Nothing' (1599) An interesting commentary about
Shakespeare's second period comedies is that the heroines stand out and are just
as outstanding as the heroes. Heroines such as Beatrice in 'Much Ado About
Nothing' and Titania in 'A Midsummer's Night Dream' are examples of strong
ambitious women in Shakespearean literature. This is a noteworthy feature,
because during the time Shakespeare wrote, women had little or no power in
society, and were never given admirable qualities in literature. "All that
lives must die, passing through nature to eternity." (Hamlet) So began the
third stage of Shakespeare's writings, the period of tragedies. During the third
stage, Shakespeare produced eternal works such as 'Hamlet,' (1601) 'Macbeth.' (Macbeth)
'Othello,' (1604) and 'King Lear.' (1605) During the third stage, Shakespeare
touched base with the essence of human feeling and misery. This achievement
shows itself in the characters. "In securing the Scottish throne, Macbeth
dulls his humanity to the point where he becomes capable of any amoral
act." (Encarta 99) The fourth and final period included the romantic 'tragi-comedies,'
plays which are more optimistic with humanity than his previous plays. By this I
mean Shakespeare exhibits more of man's redeeming qualities, and grants the
characters happier ending. Critics are uncertain whether this is a reflection of
Shakespeare's personal life, or the change in dramatic writing at the time.

Needless to say, the stages Shakespeare's literary development underwent each
were vital to history. Weather in capturing the essence of a 17th century
kingdom, creating strong female characters, or just crafting a new writing
style, each change William Shakespeare made certainly affected literary history.

(Encarta 99) Shakespeare's characters encompassed humanity. Earlier this year, I
read 'Othello' in English class. Although the language was difficult to
understand, the book was a captivating read. One point that Ms. Vincent
emphasized the most while reading 'Othello' was to remember that the characters
are just characters, and not real people. Although this is indeed true, readers
feel differently. "He writes real people," one actress said after
acting in an Oscar-winning Shakespearean movie just last year. (http://www.geocities.com/fiver_1/Articles/newsweek.html
Dench, Judy) While reading 'Othello,' or any Shakespearean play for that matter,
readers tend to lose themselves in the rich plots and intricate characters, and
completely forget that the stories are for the most part, fiction. One of the
reasons that Shakespeare's characters are so genuine is that they are not
limited to one emotion or characteristic. A character may start off with a
sincere attitude of goodness, and as the plot thickens, unravel a scheme to
murder the king. Characters such as Othello and Macbeth each acted out upon
personality and raw emotion, each coping with multiple emotions as well as their
own consciences. Characters don't behave according to the play; they behave
according to their own individual personalities. It was once said of
Shakespeare's characters, "we know to such a degree as we know few if any
persons alive." (http://www.britannica.com/bcom/eb/article/1/0,5716,117521+12,00.html
Shaw, George Bernard) For example, in the play Othello, the main character
exhibits intense feeling and passion while debating between both reason and
action. Because of Othello's personality, action prevailed over reason, and
Othello ended up making a mistake that cost him his wife. Although many heroes
in stories end up saving the day and getting the girl, Shakespearean heroes are
not invisible; they all contain one tragic fault, which always leads to their
downfall. The Achilles heel of the hero, all depends on the character's
personality, again emphasizing reality. The faults of the heroes are used in the
plays to make the characters seem more human and realistic. Shakespearean plots
are another factor that adds realism to the dramas or comedies. Murder, lust,
greed and revenge are themes that have remained enticing since biblical times,
and remain enticing today. Shakespeare's plots center around universal issues
that have no right or wrong answers. Readers identify with the stories, even
several hundred years later. Because of this, the plays have remained
entertaining and accepted for hundreds upon hundreds of years. So, I think it's
safe to conclude that Shakespeare has remained popular for so many years because
his universal themes, and his very personalized characters. Shakespeare's
writing has been unparalleled throughout history. William Shakespeare was not
only famous for his stories; he was famous for how he wrote them. Shakespeare
employed poetic verse in his comedies, tragedies, histories as well as his
poems. (Encarta 99) "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more
lovely and more temperate: rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, and
summer's lease hath all too short a date." (Encarta 99 Sonnet 18)
Shakespeare's usages of metaphors have made his works able to interpret on many
levels, for the casual playgoer, to the literary scholar. Shakespearean lines
usually contain insight into the plot, hero, or villain. Despite the heavy use
of metaphors, Shakespeare's plays do not have a set form, however they do have a
rhyme scheme. Shakespeare is also credited with being the first writer to ever
use modern prose in his writing. Shakespeare's intellect was so expansive, he
found the English vocabulary he had to work with limiting, so he invented new
words for his writings. Some of the words which came into existence because of
Shakespeare are "lackluster," "amazement,"
"dislocation," and "premeditated." (www.shakespeare-online
Ashlee Jensen) Shakespeare's capture of the English language has been neither
rivaled nor repeated throughout history. Several favorite themes in sonnets and
plays are time, truth, life and love, other universally appealing issues that
still remain in the favor of most modern audiences. These plays attracted both
the pauper and the prince to the theaters, both two hundred years ago, and two
days ago. Most modern playwrights have borrowed Shakespeare's plots, weather
realizing so or not. Hero faces villain, love struck teenagers torn apart by
parents, racial injustice in society, many Shakespearean issues re found in most
modern-day forms of entertainment. "We are faced with the infuriating fact
that Shakespeare is still our model." (http://www.britannica.com/bcom/eb/article/1/0,5716,117521+12,00.html
Brooks, Peter) "Today in England, it is extremely difficult for an actor to
reach prominence without having acted in at least one of Shakespeare's plays.

"Post-MTV Shakespeare has also come into style lately, with the releases of
movies like the 1997 'Romeo and Juliet,' and 1999's 'Ten Things I Hate About
You.' Not only is Shakespeare being tolerated in the classroom, he is being
enjoyed outside of it. This just goes to show Shakespeare's amazing talent at
reaching all levels of age, intellect, social ranking, and individual taste.

Shakespeare's chronicle histories have done more than just provide us with an
interesting story about a corrupt king or a murderous son, they have given
historians a second-hand glimpse at events and times which would have otherwise
been lost. Plays such as 'Richard III,' 'King John,' 'King Henry VI,' and
'Hamlet' have reflected on actual European history during the times they were
written. The play 'King Henry VI' was based on the Tudor family during the War
of the Roses in the early 1450's in England. Although the play was written
accurately, many events were exaggerated to support the Lancastrian side.

'Richard III' was the story of the son of King Edward, who came to be prince at
the tender age of eleven. Although Edward's brothers were the appropriate ages
and had enough political knowledge to be able to be king, the deeply rooted
English traditional clearly stated that "it was the right of the eldest son
or his immediate male heir to inherit the throne to the exclusion of the younger
sons." (http://orathost.cfa.ilstu.edu/shakespeare/research/ISFr2.html) And
so Richard became king. The theme of the play "Richard III' presents
another universal problem. The problem is whether to persist with tradition,
despite bad conditions, or to do what is best at the time. For the nation of
England, having a ten-year-old king would not be a smart political move.

However, the reins of tradition hold tight. So comes forth this question,
"If a king rules unconscionably, do his subjects have the right to replace
him?" (http://www.dartmouth.edu/engl24/essays/fleming.html Fleming, Brian)
Remember that although these plays are historical, they are also drama, and
present not only information but also a cause for interest. Shakespeare's
chronicle histories not only present information of Shakespeare's time, but they
also have an even more important underlying message; how average people viewed
the situations happening around them. This reflects not only the change in world
culture since the times of the plays, but also how values and thinking have
changed as well. Over the years, William Shakespeare, as all writers, has
suffered literary criticism for his plays and his writing style. I am going to
present to you, reader, several arguments against Shakespeare so that you may
come to a conclusion yourself about my thesis. One argument that has been made
about the writings of Shakespeare attacks his ambiguity with his meanings. Prof.

Hawkins of the University of Wales Cardiff believes Shakespeare "lacks
necessary distinction" in his plays, or a clear interpretation. The
argument is essentially that since there is no clear meaning for Shakespeare,
then he is a "black hole" into which we throw our meanings. (http://svpaserver.perform.utas.edu.au/resources/unit_resource/drama2/shakes1.html
Hawkins, Terence) Kristie Bush disputes the belief that readers identify with
Shakespeare's characters easily, which explains for his endurance over time. She
uses the character Othello as an example, "...a mentally healthy person
usually will not be able to relate to many of Shakespeare's lead characters
because, as their motivations and actions reveal, many of them had what are now
diagnosed as serious mental disorders and even psychoses." (http://student.cscc.edu/ENGL/Engl264/res.htm#Bush:
Bush, Kristie) Bush goes on to diagnose Othello with delusional disorder,
jealousy type, and explosive disorder. Bush believes that Shakespeare's
characters are not easily identifiable because they have mental disorders.

Naturally this begs the question, if people do identify with Shakespeare's
characters, does that imply they're crazy? To conclude, I think that yes,
Shakespeare is the best modern author yet. I believe this because of three
reasons. Shakespeare's eloquent writing style, namely his use of prose,
metaphors, and his open interpretations allows the reader to take what they want
out of his play, rather than have it forced at them. Shakespeare's characters
and plots are so richly developed; the characters behave by their own
personalities, an element foreign to prior literature. The plots wrangle with
universal questions of morality and tradition, while the characters are very
realistic and genuine. Shakespeare's historical plays are an area of interest,
not only for the history, for they provide a mirror for society. Over the years,
society's views have changed on many issues. Plays such as 'Richard III' and
'King Henry VI' demonstrate how culture and people have changed over a matter of
a few hundred years. Imagine, someone in three hundred years may read
"Richard III" and react totally differently than you or I would react
to the play today. So, all in all, Shakespeare's literary achievements made him
the most significant modern author in the history of the English language.