Asthma causes shortness of breath, coughing and wheezing. This may mean a child with asthma may not be able to take part in some of the schools physical activities, if it is severe. They may have to take medication. They may need to take time out for hospital appointments or when really bad they may have to stop in hospital, this in turn may lead to them spending a lot of time without their friends and may lead them to find it hard to socialise. Emotionally have to use a inhaler can be embarrassing as the child gets older and spending time away from their school friends which may lead to them falling behind in their education.

Disability; - If a child as a disability like being in a wheelchair this may lead to them feeling isolated which could affect their social skills. If the school is not adapted for disabled children they may miss out on lessons which in turn could affect their self-esteem and confidence.

Sensory impairment; - There are four major ways in which hearing loss affects children. Speech and language are delayed which means a child will learn at a slower rate. Their communication with their friends and peers will become difficult, this may lead to the child feeling isolated. They may miss out on subjects at school such as cooking, woodwork and metal work.

Learning difficulties; - Having a learning difficulty may have some effect on a child’s ability to interact with other children. Being a slow learner means that educationally the child may struggle and this could lead to frustration and anger on the child’s part. The child may find it hard to make friends because of low self-esteem and self-worth. External factors that can influence a child’s development

Poverty and deprivation; - This can have a severe impact on all areas of a child’s development. Families on a low income are unable to provide their children to things such as computers, holidays and a healthy diet. They are more likely to suffer from health problems due to poor living. Statistics show that children who come from a low income family are less likely to thrive and achieve well in school, as parents struggle to pay for things like extracurricular activities. This may in turn make the children the children feel isolated and not make friends easy.

Family environment and background; - family plays a big part in how a child’s personality, attitude and behaviour develop. Children that come from a more stable background, who are praised and encouraged will be more socially and emotionally secure than children who are ignored and neglected. The area where a child is brought up may also have an impact on them children who come from a deprived area are more likely to turn to crime.

Personal choices; - It’s important that children are allowed to make personal choices, but they have to realise that the choices that they make can have a positive or negative consequences. A positive choice like joining an after school club may lead the child to have a better physical and social wellbeing. Choosing the wrong friends can lead the child to feel insecure and unhappy, which would be a negative choice.

Looked after / care status; - Children in care have less opportunity to make positive relationships. They are more vulnerable due to being separated from their family and friends. This may lead to the child to have behaviour problems such as aggression. The child may also become withdrawn and this would affect their communication skills. Education; - Schools affects a child’s development in many different ways. It has a beneficial effect on their language, intellectual and social development. Physical education develops fine and gross motor skills and encourages social skills through sharing in team sports. Medical model of disability

This views disability as a problem that belongs to the disabled person and is not seen as an issue that should concern anyone accept the person affected by it. For example is a student is in a wheel chair and cannot get into the school because of the steps, the medical model suggest this is because of the wheel chair and not the steps. Social model of disability

This sees the steps as a barrier. It draws on the idea that it is society should design and adapt to the needs of the disabled person. It is a more inclusive approach; thought is given to how disabled people can participate on an equal footing with non- disabled people.

Social pedagogy.

Social pedagogy started in 2007 although was an idea first started being used in Germany around the middle of the 19th Century. It benefits children by giving them support in allowing them to take risks as a way of helping them to develop their own judgement. It also helps them to remove barriers that stop their development and will help then increase social and interactions and communication. It provides a more standard made of instructions resulting in more organised behaviour. The child is central though their involvement and interaction with the wider world. In my placement children are encouraged to make choices for themselves, as opposed to being forced to do things. This gives the child the opportunity to make what they think are the right choices and reflect on the outcome of the decisions that they make. This makes the child think they are included in what is going on and makes them feel they are playing part in things that are going on around them.