Chapter 12, Exam 3 Name: ___________________________________ Date: ______________ 1. The definition of _____ is a negative emotional state occurring in response to events that are perceived as taxing or exceeding a person's resources or ability to cope. A) a hassle B) stress C) a stressor D) appraisal 2.
Which of the following is the BEST definition of stress?A) the demands that are made on you by other people B) deadlines, daily hassles, or inconveniences C) a negative emotional state caused by your perception that you are unable to cope with events or circumstances D) the mental processes that people use to make sense out of their environment 3. During their third year at college, Tammy and Timothy both lost their part-time jobs in the library due to funding cutbacks. Tammy was mildly disturbed, shrugged her shoulders, and said she'd soon get another job. Timothy was distraught and believed he might have to quit college.
Their different reactions to the same stressful event emphasizes the importance of: A) their respective cognitive appraisals of the event. B) gender differences in response to stressors. C) cultural differences in response to stressors. D) quantifying major life events in terms of life change units. 4. When Chris missed his connecting flight due to bad weather, he became extremely upset and worried about the important meeting he was going to miss.
In this scenario, the missed connection is an example of a _____, and his response to the missed connection is an example of _____.A) life event; the exhaustion stage of the general adaptation syndrome B) stressor; stress C) hassle; the stress contagion effect D) stress; stressor Page 1 5. The branch of psychology that studies how biological, behavioral, and social factors influence health, illness, medical treatment, and health-related behaviors is called: A) social psychology. B) biological psychology. C) health psychology.
D) psychoneuroimmunology. 6. Dr. Gordon uses the biopsychosocial model to guide her research into how psychological factors influence health, illness, and treatment.
Dr.Gordon is most likely a: A) health psychologist. B) social psychologist. C) neuroscientist. D) psychoneuroimmunologist. 7.
When Angela goes to graduate school she wants to focus on how to promote healthenhancing behaviors, how psychological factors influence health and illness, and how people respond in the relationship between patient and health practitioner. Angela's interest is in: A) physiology. B) psychoneuroimmunology. C) cross-cultural psychology.
D) health psychology. 8. Health psychology is guided by the _____ model of health, illness, and well-being.A) stress and coping B) biopsychosocial C) psychoneuroimmunology D) general adaptation 9.
Dr. Mendez is a researcher who believes that physical and emotional health are affected by the complex interaction of biological, psychological, behavioral, and social factors. Thus, Dr. Mendez tends to follow the _____ model in her research. A) general adaptation B) psychoneuroimmunology C) biopsychosocial D) cognitive appraisal Page 2 10. The events or situations that are perceived as harmful, threatening, or challenging are called: A) catecholamines.
B) daily hassles C) stressors. D) life change units. 1. The chapter prologue described the attacks on the World Trade Center towers in Manhattan, their collapse, and the aftermath of these events, especially the effects on Katie, a young woman living near the towers.
In the context of health psychology, the events of September 11th and their aftermath are examples of: A) acculturative stress. B) the general adaptation syndrome. C) the stress contagion effect. D) stressors.
12. Early stress researchers Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe: A) showed that disruptions in personal relationships were the strongest predictors of heart disease and cancer.B) developed the theory called general adaptation syndrome (GAS). C) demonstrated that the immune system could be classically conditioned. D) believed that any change that required a person to adjust his or her behavior or lifestyle would cause stress.
13. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS): A) measures acculturative stress. B) uses personality measures to estimate the length of time it will take a person to recover and readjust from the stressful effects of major life traumas. C) was an attempt to quantify and rank the impact of stress-producing events in a person's life.D) measures the effect that everyday events that annoy and upset people has on health and well-being. 14.
The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS), which was an attempt to quantify and rank the impact of stress-producing events in a person's life, was developed by: A) Richard Lazarus. B) Robert Ader and Nicholas Cohen. C) Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe. D) Janice Kiecolt-Glaser and Ron Glaser. Page 3 15. Holmes and Rahe believed that any change that required you to adjust your behavior and lifestyle would cause stress.
In an attempt to measure the amount of stress people experienced, they developed the: A) Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ). B) Daily Hassles Scale (DHS). C) Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS). D) Cognitive Reappraisal Rating Scale (CRRS).
16. In contrast to the conclusions reached by early stress researchers Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe, contemporary health psychologists now believe that: A) to improve its predictive power, the Social Readjustment Rating Scale needs to be expanded from 43 life events to 125 life events.B) positive life events, such as vacations or marriage, have a worse impact on physical health than negative life events. C) the impact of major life events is more damaging than originally thought and high scores on the Social Readjustment Rating Scale are invariably associated with severe illness or disease. D) most people weather major life events without developing severe physical or psychological problems.
17. When Rachel completed the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) her score, based on events during the previous year, was 350 life change units.Which of the following statements is TRUE? A) Rachel will almost certainly develop severe psychological and physical problems. B) It is not possible to make an accurate prediction about Rachel's future health because scores on the SRRS are only weakly correlated with the development of physical and psychological problems. C) Rachel's low score indicates that she has experienced very few problems or hassles during the past year. D) Positive life events in Rachel's life will offset any stress caused by negative life events.
Page 4 18.A number of problems with the life events approach have been identified. Which of the following is NOT one of them? A) The link between scores on the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) and the development of physical or psychological problems is relatively weak. B) There is an inverse relationship between scores on the SRRS and physical and psychological problems; the higher the score, the lower the health risks, and vice versa. C) The SRRS does not take into account the person's subjective appraisal of an event, response to that event, or ability to cope with the event.
D) The life event approach assumes that any change produces stress, but research shows that positive changes are much less likely to produce stress than negative changes. 19. Dr. Garcia and her colleagues have done extensive research into the effects of life events on health and well-being. She is most likely to conclude that: A) undesirable events are significant sources of stress, but change in itself is not necessarily stressful. B) people's cognitive appraisal of events is unrelated to their level of stress.
C) positive and negative life events are equal in their contribution to levels of stress experienced.D) positive life events such as getting engaged, finding a job, or taking a vacation have a greater cumulative effect on stress levels than do negative life events such as divorce, death of a spouse, or losing a job. 20. _____ are everyday, minor events that annoy and upset people.
A) Life change units B) Daily hassles C) Catastrophes D) Type A events 21. In a study that focused on married couples, researchers investigated possible gender differences in the frequency of daily hassles. What did the study show? A) Women experienced more daily hassles and higher levels of stress than their husbands.B) Men experienced more daily hassles and higher levels of stress than their wives. C) There were no gender differences in the number of daily hassles experienced.
D) Although the women reported more daily hassles than their husbands, they experienced significantly less stress because they used more effective coping strategies. Page 5 22. In terms of daily hassles, what gender differences have been found? A) Daily hassles for men are most commonly related to financial and job-related issues, while daily hassles for women are most commonly due to family demands and interpersonal conflict.B) Women's daily hassles are more commonly related to money problems, while men's daily hassles are more commonly due to interpersonal conflict.
C) There are no significant gender differences in either the frequency or cause of daily hassles. D) Men are more likely to cope with daily hassles by becoming angry, while women are more likely to respond to daily hassles by withdrawing from others. 23. Lisa and her husband John have both had a very stressful day at work. According to psychological research: A) John is more likely to withdraw from contact with other family members.B) Lisa is more likely to withdraw from contact with other family members.
C) both Lisa and John are likely to withdraw from contact with other family members. D) both Lisa and John are likely to seek out contact with other family members, including their teenage children. 24. Kathleen overslept, got caught in rush hour traffic, and was late for work. During lunch she spilled coffee on her clothes.
When she left work that afternoon she got caught in a sudden downpour of rain. By the time she arrived home she felt drained, grumpy, and stressed out. Kathleen's present state is the result of the cumulative effect of: A) major life events.B) stress contagion. C) daily hassles.
D) life change units. 25. Which of the following is considered a life change event and is NOT an example of a daily hassle? A) concern about your weight B) the cost of repairs to your car C) not enough money for the rent D) changing your hours of work and working conditions Page 6 26. According to Table 12. 2 in the text, which of the following is NOT listed as a hassle on the College Daily Hassles Scale? A) concerns about failing a course B) increased class workload C) change to different line of work D) concerns about meeting high standards 7.
Research on the relationship between daily hassles and psychological distress and physical symptoms has shown that the: A) frequency of daily hassles is unrelated to psychological distress and physical illness. B) number of daily hassles people experience is a better predictor of psychological distress and physical illness than the number of major life events experienced. C) number of major life events people experience is a better predictor of psychological distress and physical illness than the number of daily hassles experienced.D) more hassles you experience, the less likely you are to suffer psychological distress and physical illness.
28. In their research, Dr. Grayson and his colleagues discovered there was a link between the number of daily hassles people experienced and psychological distress and physical ailments, such as headaches and backaches. One explanation for this phenomenon is that: A) while each minor stressor may be relatively unimportant in itself, the effect of daily hassles can be cumulative.
B) even a minor daily hassle produces more stress than a major life event.C) daily hassles tend to stimulate immune system responses and increase their effectiveness. D) people who are illness-prone are more likely to experience daily hassles. 29. After her husband died last year, Sophia moved to a new city, started a new job, and returned to school part time after an absence of ten years. These major life events may create a ripple effect and generate a host of _____ that could significantly _____ Sophia's stress level.
A) life change units; decrease B) daily hassles; increase C) immune system responses; decrease D) daily hassles; decrease Page 7 30.People who must cope with crime, poverty, substandard housing, and unemployment in their everyday environment often experience: A) marginalization. B) the stress contagion effect. C) acculturative stress.
D) chronic stress. 31. People in the _____ socioeconomic levels of society tend to have the _____ levels of psychological distress, illness, and death. A) lowest; lowest B) highest; highest C) lowest; highest D) highest and lowest; same 32.
Subtle instances of racism that take a cumulative toll and often contribute to the chronic stress experienced by members of minority groups are referred to as: A) life change units.B) daily hassles. C) microaggressions. D) stress contagion responses. 33. In their survey research, investigators interested in the relationship between racism and chronic stress found that three-quarters of African-American adolescents reported being treated as incompetent or dangerous, or both, because of their race.
Such subtle instances of racism are called: A) daily hassles. B) acculturative stressors. C) life change units. D) microaggressions. 34.
When Arnell and his friends go to the local mall they are sometimes perceived as dangerous because of their race.If they are similar to three-quarters of other African American adolescents who reported being treated as incompetent or dangerous, or both, because of their race, they may be experiencing a subtle form of racism called: A) microaggressions. B) acculturative stressors. C) the stress contagion effect. D) daily hassles. Page 8 35.
The stress that results from the pressure of adapting to a new culture is called: A) integration-assimilation stress. B) the stress contagion effect. C) acculturative stress. D) assimilation-separation stress.
36.When Hamid emigrated to Canada, he went to live with relatives in a neighborhood populated primarily by others from his country. Hamid speaks his native language, socializes with people who belong to his ethnic group, and has not yet tried to learn English. According to the Culture and Human Behavior box, “The Stress of Adapting to a New Culture,” Hamid's pattern of acculturation is called: A) integration.
B) assimilation. C) marginalization. D) separation. 37.
The term acculturative stress refers to: A) the second stage of the general adaptation syndrome.B) the avoidance-avoidance conflict that all new immigrants experience. C) the stress that results from the pressure of adapting to a new culture. D) coping strategies that immigrants use. 38. When Konya emigrated to the United States, he found it very difficult to adapt to the new culture.
Konya probably experienced: A) the stress contagion effect. B) acculturative stress. C) separation-integration stress. D) the fight-or-flight response. 39.
When Ramona encountered a new cultural environment she was faced with two fundamental questions: “Should I seek positive relations with the dominant society? and “Is my original culture of value to me, and should I try to maintain it? ” Which of the following is NOT one of the four possible patterns of acculturation that Ramona might adopt? A) integration B) assimilation C) acceptance D) separation Page 9 40. As a new immigrant to the United States, Yangtse was faced with two fundamental questions: “Should I seek positive relations with the dominant society? ” and “Is my original cultural identity of value to me, and should I try to maintain it? ” Yangtse answered “yes” to both. Yangtse chose: A) marginalization. B) separation.
C) assimilation. D) integration. 41.When Nishio emigrated to Australia, he heartily embraced the new culture, adopting the dress and social values of his new home, and soon gave up his old traditions, customs, and language. Nishio chose: A) integration. B) assimilation.
C) separation. D) marginalization. 42. Elizabeth is leaving the United States to live and work in Japan and is very excited about the change. When Elizabeth arrives and starts work in Japan, she is likely to: A) adapt very quickly to her new environment without experiencing any stress whatsoever.
B) experience psychological distress and physical illness within weeks of her arrival.C) experience increased levels of stress due to the acculturation process. D) experience decreased levels of stress due to the acculturation process. 43. The Culture and Human Behavior box, “The Stress of Adapting to a New Culture,” described four different patterns of adapting to a new culture.
Which pattern of acculturation tends to produce the highest level of acculturative stress? A) integration B) marginalization C) assimilation D) separation Page 10 44. The Culture and Human Behavior box, “The Stress of Adapting to a New Culture,” described four different patterns of adapting to a new culture.Which pattern of acculturation tends to produce the lowest level of acculturative stress? A) marginalization B) separation C) integration D) assimilation 45. Stress can indirectly undermine health and physical well-being by: A) causing muscle contractions and elevating blood pressure.
B) disrupting immune system functioning. C) activating the fight-or-flight response. D) making people more likely to engage in unhealthy behaviors. 46. After having a particularly stressful week at work, Mick was so preoccupied with his problems as he drove home from work that he didn't notice that the car in front of him had stopped suddenly.Mick was ticketed for “inattentive driving” by the police officer that investigated the traffic accident.
This example illustrates how stress can _____ a person's health and well-being. A) indirectly affect B) directly affect C) psychologically boost D) physically intensify 47. Stress can directly undermine health and physical well-being by: A) altering body functions in a way that leads to physical symptoms or illness. B) disrupting attention and concentration.
C) making people more likely to use tobacco, alcohol, or other drugs.D) making people less likely to meet deadlines and commitments. 48. A survey of Manhattan residents in the weeks following the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center found that about _____ reported _____ use of alcohol, cigarettes, and/ or marijuana.
A) 60 percent increased B) 30 percent; increased C) 10 percent; decreased D) 40 percent; decreased Page 11 49. A survey of Manhattan residents in the weeks following the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center found that about 30 percent of the residents reported: A) decreased use of alcohol, cigarettes, and/or marijuana.B) increased use of alcohol, cigarettes, and/or marijuana. C) muscle tension and headaches.
D) an increase in the frequency of cold, influenza, and pneumonia infections. 50. As shown in a bar graph in your textbook, nearly 50 percent of adults across the United States reported _____ after the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center. A) increased use of alcohol, cigarettes, and/or marijuana. B) severe migraine and tension headaches. C) sleep problems and disturbances.
D) frequent colds and influenza infections. 51. Walter Cannon is to _____ as Hans Selye is to _____.A) the fight-or-flight response; the general adaptation syndrome B) psychoneuroimmunology; biopsychosocial psychology C) the general adaptation syndrome; the fight-or-flight response D) biopsychosocial psychology; psychoneuroimmunology 52. Walter Cannon is to _____ as Robert Ader is to _____. A) the fight-or-flight response; psychoneuroimmunology B) the general adaptation syndrome; psychoneuroimmunology C) the general adaptation syndrome; the fight-or-flight response D) psychoneuroimmunology; the general adaptation syndrome 53.
Robert Ader is to _____ as Hans Selye is to _____.A) fight-or-flight response; psychoneuroimmunology B) psychoneuroimmunology; fight-or-flight response C) general adaptation syndrome; fight-or-flight response D) psychoneuroimmunology; general adaptation syndrome Page 12 54. On the final exam, Hubert was faced with a question about whose research helped establish a new interdisciplinary field called psychoneuroimmunology. The correct answer is: A) Janice Kiecolt-Glaser and Ron Glaser.
B) Hans Selye. C) Walter Cannon. D) Robert Ader and Nicholas Cohen. 55.
It was the research of _____ that helped establish a new interdisciplinary field called _____.A) Hans Selye; behavioral medicine B) Walter Cannon; biopsychosocial psychology C) Robert Ader and Nicholas Cohen; psychoneuroimmunology D) Janice Kiecolt-Glaser and Ron Glaser; psychoneuroimmunology 56. Research on stress and the immune system is to _____ as classical conditioning and the immune system is to _____. A) Hans Selye; Walter Cannon B) Janice Kiecolt-Glaser and Ron Glaser; Robert Ader and Nicholas Cohen C) Robert Ader and Nicholas Cohen; Janice Kiecolt-Glaser and Ron Glaser D) Walter Cannon; Hans Selye 57.
It was the research of Robert Ader and Nicholas Cohen that helped establish a new interdisciplinary field called: A) psychoneuroimmunology. B) biopsychosocial psychology. C) behavioral medicine. D) health psychology. 58.
The American physiologist Walter B. Cannon: A) described the fight-or-flight response, which involves the sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine system. B) demonstrated that the immune system could be classically conditioned, a finding that helped establish the field of psychoneuroimmunology. C) described the three-stage response to prolonged stress called the general adaptation syndrome.D) conducted research on explanatory style and the role it plays in stress, health, and illness.
Page 13 59. The person who described the fight-or-flight response, which involves the sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine system, was: A) Hans Selye. B) Robert Ader. C) Walter Cannon. D) Janice Kiecolt-Glaser. 60.
As her car spun out of control on an icy road, Mia's muscles tensed and her blood pressure, heartbeat, and pulse increased dramatically. This rapidly occurring chain of internal physical reactions is called the: A) general adaptation response. B) the stress contagion effect. C) fight-or-flight response.
D) endocrine system pathway two response. 61. The _____ response refers to the rapidly occurring chain of internal physical reactions that prepare people to react to an immediate threat. A) stress contagion B) general adaptation C) escape-avoidance D) fight-or-flight 62. When a large snarling dog threatened Daniel during his regular morning jog, he experienced the classic symptoms of the fight-or-flight response. According to Walter Cannon, Daniel's response to this acute level of stress involves both: A) the parasympathetic nervous system and the endocrine system.
B) activation of the hypothalamus and the release of ACTH.C) the sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine system. D) activation of the adrenal cortex and the secretion of corticosteroids. 63. When Marcy arrived home she was shocked to see that her house had been burglarized and ransacked, and she was terrified that the burglar might still be in the house. It is very probable that Marcy's sympathetic nervous system has stimulated her adrenal medulla to secrete hormones called: A) corticosteroids.
B) dopamine. C) catecholamines. D) serotonin. Page 14 64. _____ are hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla that cause rapid physiological arousal and include adrenaline and noradrenaline.A) Corticosteroids B) Lymphocytes C) Teratogens D) Catecholamines 65.
According to Walter Cannon, which of the following is the correct sequence involved in the fight-or-flight response to acute stress? A) hypothalamus, sympathetic nervous system, adrenal medulla, secretion of catecholamines B) hypothalamus, parasympathetic nervous system, adrenal cortex, secretion of corticosteroids C) pituitary gland, secretion of catecholamines, parasympathetic nervous system, release of ACTH D) pituitary gland, release of ACTH, sympathetic nervous system, adrenal medulla, secretion of catecholamines 6. When stress is prolonged, the hypothalamus signals the: A) brain to release catecholamines. B) thymus to release corticosteroids. C) immune system to release lymphocytes. D) pituitary gland to release ACTH.
67. Stress can have both direct and indirect effects that undermine physical health and body functions. Which of the following is considered a direct effect of stress? A) disrupted sleep and other sleep problems B) increased consumption of coffee, alcohol, and/or tobacco products C) disrupted concentration and memory problems D) increased levels of catecholamines and corticosteroids 8. The general adaptation syndrome, a three-stage progression of physical changes that occur in response to intense and prolonged stress, was described by: A) Walter Cannon. B) Robert Ader.
C) Janice Kiecolt-Glaser. D) Hans Selye. Page 15 69. The Canadian endocrinologist Hans Selye: A) described the fight-or-flight response, which involves the activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine system.
B) described the general adaptation syndrome, the three-stage progression of physical changes that occur in response to intense and prolonged stress.C) was a pioneer in behavioral medicine and helped establish the field of biopsychosocial psychology. D) was responsible for creating the interdisciplinary field of psychoneuroimmunology. 70.
Abby's husband was critically injured in a car accident. He survived, but Abby had to care for him at home for several months before he was able to regain normal functioning, which was very stressful for Abby. After he was able to return to work, Abby felt completely exhausted. According to Hans Selye, Abby had probably experienced the: A) stress contagion effect.
B) general adaptation syndrome.C) fight-or-flight response. D) tend-and-befriend response. 71. As he began his internship in a hospital emergency room, George felt very anxious. Throughout the internship he experienced intense and prolonged stress, did not eat well, and did not get enough sleep.
When he successfully completed his internship, he felt completely worn out and got very sick with the flu. George is probably experiencing the: A) “fight” phase of the fight-or-flight response. B) “flight” phase of the fight-or-flight response. C) “alarm” stage of the general adaptation syndrome.D) “exhaustion” stage of the general adaptation syndrome.
72. Nikki, an air traffic controller, experiences prolonged and chronic stress. According to Hans Selye's model of stress, Nikki's response to this intense and persistent stress probably involves high levels of: A) adrenaline and noradrenaline. B) lymphocytes. C) catecholamines.
D) corticosteroids. Page 16 73. Selye's term for the three-stage progression of physical changes that occur when an organism is exposed to intense and prolonged stress is: A) the stress contagion effect. B) psychoneuroimmunology. C) the fight-or-flight response.D) the general adaptation syndrome.
74. When Carl got to the parking lot, he was distressed to find that his new car had been badly damaged by a hit-and-run driver. At this point, Carl is probably in the _____ stage of the general adaptation syndrome. A) stress contagion B) alarm C) resistance D) exhaustion 75.
Shortly after getting over the shock of losing her job as managing director of the Electra Company, Morgan started to actively search for a new job. At this point in time, Morgan had passed through the _____ stage and is now in the _____ stage of the general adaptation syndrome.A) exhaustion; denial B) alarm; resistance C) denial; resistance D) alarm; exhaustion 76. Intense arousal is to the _____ stage of the general adaptation syndrome as adjustment to a continuing stressful situation is to the _____ stage. A) alarm; exhaustion B) exhaustion; resistance C) resistance; exhaustion D) alarm; resistance Page 17 77.
When Mrs. Anderson had a stroke that left her partly paralyzed and cognitively impaired, her husband took care of her. After four months, Mr. Anderson has adjusted to the daily routine, but he seems tense, and his ability to cope with new stressors is diminished.It is very likely that Mr.
Anderson is now in the _____ stage of the general adaptation syndrome, but if the situation gets worse and continues for a prolonged period of time, he may enter the _____ stage. A) alarm; resistance B) resistance; exhaustion C) exhaustion; alarm D) alarm; exhaustion 78. Which of the following statements is FALSE? A) In the short run, corticosteroids provide several benefits, helping protect the body against the harm caused by stressors. B) Corticosteroids reduce inflammation of body tissue and enhance muscle tone in the heart and blood vessels.
C) Continued high levels of corticosteroids, especially cortisol, can weaken important body systems, lowering immunity and increasing susceptibility to physical symptoms and illness. D) Like the catecholamines, the effects of corticosteroids tend to diminish very quickly and cause no long-lasting problems. 79. The hormones that are released by the adrenal cortex and that play a key role in the body's response to long-term stressors are called: A) corticosteroids. B) lymphocytes. C) adrenaline and noradrenaline.
D) catecholamines. 80. Brandon came down with viral pneumonia.His body's immune system will produce _____ to defend him against the infection. A) lymphocytes B) adrenaline and noradrenaline C) corticosteroids D) catecholamines Page 18 81. The body system that produces specialized white blood cells that defend the body from viruses, bacteria, and tumor cells is called the _____ system.
A) sympathetic nervous B) endocrine C) immune D) parasympathetic nervous 82. The final exam period was very stressful for Maria, and at the end of the semester she got very sick with a viral infection. Her body's _____ will produce _____ to help fight against the virus.A) endocrine system; corticosteroids B) sympathetic nervous system; catecholamines C) immune system; lymphocytes D) immune system; catecholamines 83.
The notion that the immune system operated independently of other body systems was challenged by _____, who demonstrated that the immune system response in rats could be classically conditioned. A) Hans Selye B) Janice Kiecolt-Glaser and Ronald Glaser C) Walter B. Cannon D) Robert Ader and Nicholas Cohen 84. Ader and Cohen's groundbreaking study demonstrated that: A) the immune system response can be classically conditioned.
B) the immune system response cannot be classically conditioned, but the endocrine system response can. C) although lymphocytes contain receptor sites for neurotransmitters and hormones, they are incapable of producing these chemicals. D) even mild stressors, such as taking a quiz, can have long-term adverse effects on immune system functioning. 85. _____ is an interdisciplinary field that studies the interconnections among psychological processes, nervous and endocrine system functions, and the immune system. A) Biopsychosocial psychology B) Behavioral medicine C) Psychoneuroimmunology D) Health psychologyPage 19 86.
Psychoneuroimmunology is defined as: A) an interdisciplinary field that studies the interconnections among psychological processes, nervous and endocrine system functions, and the immune system. B) an interdisciplinary field that focuses on how physical health and illness are determined by the complex interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors. C) the branch of psychology that studies how biological, behavioral, and social factors influence health, illness, medical treatment, and health-related behaviors.D) the branch of psychology that studies how psychological factors such as sense of personal control, explanatory style, personality traits, perceived social support, and coping strategies, affect an individual's response to stress. 87. Dr.
Kelly is a researcher in the interdisciplinary field of psychoneuroimmunology. Like most other specialists in this field, Dr. Kelly would most likely disagree with which of the following statements? A) The surfaces of lymphocytes contain receptor sites for neurotransmitters and hormones, including catecholamines and cortisol. B) Lymphocytes themselves produce neurotransmitters and hormones.C) The central nervous system and the immune system are directly linked. D) The immune system response cannot be classically conditioned.
88. Most psychoneuroimmunologists are likely to share the view that: A) the immune system works completely independently of other body systems. B) there are interconnections among psychological processes, nervous and endocrine system functions, and the immune system. C) the endocrine system works completely independently of other body systems.
D) there are no direct connections between the brain and the immune system, only indirect connections. 9. In one study on the effects of stress, dental students received one small puncture wound on the roof of their mouth during their summer vacation and a second wound three days before their first major exam during the fall term. What were the findings of this study? A) On the average, wounds inflicted during summer vacation took 3 days longer to heal than wounds inflicted just before the major exam. B) On the average, wounds inflicted just before the major exam took 3 days longer to heal than the wounds inflicted during summer vacation.C) In both situations, the female dental students healed almost twice as fast as the male dental students.
D) On the average, wounds inflicted just before the summer vacation took 3 days longer to heal than the wounds inflicted just before the major exam. Page 20 90. Mrs. Prouli has been taking care of her husband, who has Alzheimer's disease, for a number of years. The prolonged stress involved in caring for her husband may: A) result in increased effectiveness of her immune system.
B) suppress the secretion of corticosteroids by her endocrine system.C) result in reduced immune system functioning. D) suppress the secretion of catecholamines by her endocrine system. 91.
Minor everyday stressors such as taking an exam: A) have little or no effect on immune system functioning. B) have a positive effect on immune system functioning. C) can temporarily alter immune system functioning. D) can increase immunity to bacterial and viral infections.
92. Janice Kiecolt-Glaser and Ronald Glaser investigated the effects of rather commonplace stressors such as the numerous exams that medical students have to take each year.They discovered that exposure to such ordinary stressors of life: A) does not affect immune system functioning. B) builds up greater immunity to bacteria, viruses, and other foreign invaders. C) adversely affects immune system functioning. D) decreases the levels of both corticosteroids and catecholamines in the body.
93. Research by psychologist _____ has conclusively shown that everyday stressors, such as the stress of preparing for exams, can decrease immune system functioning in humans. A) Walter Cannon B) Janice Kiecolt-Glaser C) Richard Lazarus D) Hans SelyePage 21 94. Psychologist Sheldon Cohen and his colleagues conducted a carefully controlled study examining the relationship between stress and susceptibility to the common cold. What were the results of this study? A) Increased susceptibility to colds was not related to the volunteers' level of stress, but rather to unhealthy behaviors, such as poor diet and smoking. B) The only factor that caused increased susceptibility to colds among the volunteers in the study was exposure to the nasal spray containing the cold virus.
C) The level of stress that the volunteers reported was very strongly related to their susceptibility to the common cold virus. D) The only factor that caused increased susceptibility to colds among the study's volunteers was sharing an apartment with another person who already had the cold virus. 95. In studying the relationship between stress and susceptibility to the common cold, psychologist Sheldon Cohen and his colleagues have found that: A) when they are exposed to a cold virus, people who are under chronic stress are much more likely to develop colds than people who are not under chronic stress.B) there was no relationship between chronic stress, exposure to a cold virus, and developing a cold.
C) decreased levels of corticosteroids in the highly stressed participants boosted their immune systems response to the cold virus. D) when they are exposed to a cold virus, people who are under chronic stress are much less likely to develop colds than people who are not under chronic stress. 96. One reason why chronic stress may increase the susceptibility to infection is because chronic stress triggers the secretion of _____, which influence immune system functioning.
A) ACTH-releasing hormones B) catecholamines C) adrenaline and noradrenaline D) corticosteroids Page 22 97. Your textbook described a research study involving young adults who were under a great deal of stress and were immunized with a vaccine against influenza. Five months after their flu shots: A) the participants in the placebo control condition had very high levels of catecholamines compared to the experimental group. B) the participants in the placebo control condition had very high levels of corticosteroids compared to the experimental group.
C) the stressed-out young adults maintained a strong immune response to the influenza virus. D) the stressed-out young adults were virtually unprotected against the flu. 98. Health psychologists have found that a wide variety of stressors are associated with diminished immune system functioning, increasing the risk of health problems and slowing recovery times. Your textbook concludes that: A) exposure to stressors does not automatically translate into poorer health. B) physical health is affected by the interaction of many factors, including heredity, nutrition, health-related habits, and access to medical care.
C) a person's degree of exposure to bacteria, viruses, and other sources of disease or infection will influence the likelihood of becoming sick. D) all of these are factors that influence health and well-being. 99. Andy suffered from chronic back pain. After weeks of unsuccessful treatment, Andy's doctor gave him some pill samples, describing them as a new experimental medication for back pain. In reality, the pills were just sugar pills and contained no medication at all.
After a few days, Andy's backache was much better. Andy's response to the sugar pills is an example of: A) emotion-focused coping.B) the placebo effect. C) problem-focused coping. D) the general adaptation syndrome. Page 23 100.
The Focus on Neuroscience box, “The Mysterious Placebo Effect,” described a PET-scan study on the placebo effect. How were the two groups of participants in the study different? A) One group received the actual opioid painkiller, and the other group received the drug naloxone. B) One group was injected with an opiate painkiller, and the other group was injected with endorphins. C) One group was injected with an opiate painkiller, and the other group was injected with saline solution (a placebo).
D) One group was injected with saline solution (a placebo), and the other group received no injection or other treatment. 101. The Focus on Neuroscience box, “The Mysterious Placebo Effect,” described a PET-scan study on the placebo effect. What was the main finding of the study? A) Both the genuine painkiller and the placebo activated the same brain area and both relieved pain. B) The genuine painkiller and the placebo activated different brain areas, and only the genuine painkiller relieved pain. C) The genuine painkiller activated the anterior cingulate cortex, but the placebo inhibited activation in the anterior cingulate cortex.
D) The genuine painkiller inhibited activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, but the placebo activated the anterior cingulate cortex. 102. The Focus on Neuroscience box, “The Mysterious Placebo Effect,” described a PET-scan study on the placebo effect. Which of the following was found in the study? A) The opiate painkiller activated a brain area known to contain many opioid receptors, but the placebo activated areas of the brain with no opioid receptors. B) Both the placebo and the opiate painkiller activated a brain area known to contain many opioid receptors.C) The opiate painkiller activated a brain area known to contain many opioid receptors, but the placebo inhibited activation in the same area.
D) The placebo activated a brain area known to contain many opioid receptors, but the opiate painkiller activated areas of the brain with no opioid receptors. Page 24 103. The Focus on Neuroscience box, “The Mysterious Placebo Effect,” described a PET-scan study on the placebo effect. One possible implication of the study's results is that placebos: A) are not effective pain relievers. B) should only be given in conjunction with the drug naloxone so as to avoid potential side effects.
C) reduce pain by activating the brain's natural opioid network. D) increase pain by activating the brain's natural opioid network. 104. Psychological research has consistently shown that having a sense of control over a stressful situation _____ the impact of stressors and _____ feelings of anxiety and depression.
A) increases; increases B) reduces; increases C) increases; reduces D) reduces; decreases 105. Mrs. Pedersen lives in a nursing home that allows its residents to make choices about their daily activities and encourages them to make decisions that affect their lives. Compared to her friend Mrs.Ghormley, who lives in a nursing home where staff members make all these types of decisions, Mrs.
Pedersen is likely to: A) be more active, alert, sociable, and healthier. B) be more tired, depressed, anxious, and less healthy. C) develop severe debilitating physical and psychological problems. D) regain her health and physical strength. 106. In an important research study involving elderly nursing home residents, psychologists Judith Rodin and Ellen Langer investigated the: A) effects of relaxation techniques on psychological and physical health. B) psychological effects, but not the physical effects, of regular exercise.C) effects of a sense of personal control on psychological and physical health. D) effects of a stress-reduction training program on blood pressure and immune system functioning. Page 25 107. The research by Judith Rodin and Ellen Langer involving elderly nursing home residents demonstrated that: A) elderly nursing home residents are more likely to experience stress-related illnesses than elderly people living in their own home. B) elderly nursing home residents who have a sense of control over their environment are healthier than elderly nursing home residents without a sense of personal control over their environment.C) a sense of personal control reduces stress in younger people, but adds to the level of stress experienced by elderly nursing home residents. D) having many choices about their daily activities tended to make the elderly nursing home residents anxious. 108. Lacking a sense of control over stressful events can result in a(n): A) improvement in immune system functioning. B) decrease in corticosteroid and catecholamine levels. C) increase in corticosteroid and catecholamine levels. D) decrease in catecholamines and an increase in corticosteroids. 109.Cross-cultural research found that a heightened sense of personal control was associated with: A) lower levels of perceived stress in British participants but not Japanese participants. B) lower levels of perceived stress in Japanese participants but not British participants. C) lower levels of perceived stress in Japanese, Korean, and American participants, but not British participants. D) higher levels of perceived stress in Sudanese and South African participants but not Chinese participants. 110. Cross-cultural studies have shown that a sense of control: A) is more ighly valued in individualistic, Western cultures than in collectivistic, Eastern cultures. B) was associated with a higher level of perceived stress, but only among the British participants. C) is more highly valued in collectivistic, Eastern cultures than in individualistic, Western cultures. D) was associated with a lower level of perceived stress, but only among the Japanese participants. Page 26 111. When Harry got a failing grade in one of his courses, he decided to talk to his professor about the personal problems he had during the term and discuss the possibility of doing a makeup final exam or writing an extra paper.Harry appears to be reacting to a stressful situation by trying to exercise some personal control. If Harry's approach is realistic and successful, it is likely to: A) make him feel anxious and guilty. B) increase his level of stress and decrease the effectiveness of his immune system. C) enhance his feelings of self-confidence, self-efficacy, and autonomy. D) create feelings of learned helplessness and apathy. 112. According to psychologist Martin Seligman, people who have _____ use external, unstable, and specific explanations for negative events.A) a pessimistic explanatory style B) problem-focused coping skills C) an optimistic explanatory style D) emotion-focused coping skills 113. According to psychologist Martin Seligman, people who have a(n) _____ explanatory style use internal, stable, and global explanations for negative events. A) pessimistic B) problem-focused C) optimistic D) Type B 114. According to Martin Seligman, a person who reacts to negative events with an optimistic explanatory style uses: A) internal, stable, and global explanations for negative events. B) excuses for not getting things accomplished and is a chronic procrastinator.C) external, unstable, and specific explanations for negative events. D) an escape-avoidance coping style. Page 27 115. After Lana got a low grade on her first French exam, she told her roommate that she was dropping the course because she wasn't good at foreign languages and would never be able to figure out French grammar. Lana is best classified as having a pessimistic explanatory style because: A) she uses external, unstable, and specific explanations for negative events. B) she tends to blame others for failures and setbacks in her life and takes personal credit for positive outcomes.C) she has a behavioral and emotional style characterized by a sense of time urgency, hostility, and competitiveness. D) she uses internal, stable, and global explanations for negative events. 116. Ryan was disappointed when he was rejected in his first attempt to get admitted to a very prestigious engineering program. Despite this setback, he told his friends that he thought he would have a better chance next time, especially if he took some additional qualifying courses and raised his GPA. Martin Seligman would say that Ryan has a(n): A) confrontive coping style.B) Type A behavior pattern. C) pessimistic explanatory style. D) optimistic explanatory style. 117. When Karen suggested to Gordy that they go out for coffee on Friday night, Gordy said, “Sorry, I can't make it Friday, perhaps some other time? ” Karen did not suggest another time, but instead thought to herself that she was obviously not very attractive and always said the wrong thing to men. Martin Seligman would say that Karen has a(n): A) Type B behavior pattern. B) pessimistic explanatory style. C) problem-focused coping style. D) optimistic explanatory style. 118.A study of first-year law students found that the students who had an optimistic outlook: A) were least likely to rank in the top ten percent of their class. B) had stronger immune systems than the students with a pessimistic outlook. C) were just as likely to develop colds and respiratory infections as pessimistic students. D) were most likely to come from a background in which one or more relatives were lawyers, judges, or politicians. Page 28 119. Larry constantly complains about minor health problems, how hard he has to work, and how he is not appreciated by his family.He dislikes most of the people he meets, and no matter what happens to him he is dissatisfied and grumpy. Larry seems to display: A) a high level of personal control. B) emotions related to an optimistic explanatory style. C) Type B behavioral pattern. D) chronic negative emotions. 120. Anna is almost constantly negative, hostile, and anxious. Based on the psychological studies of people who display chronic negative emotions, Anna: A) probably experiences more frequent and more intense daily hassles than happier people do. B) is more likely than happier people to develop a chronic disease, such as heart disease or arthritis.C) probably reacts with much greater distress to stressful events than happier people do. D) is likely to experience all of the above. 121. A study looking at the effects of daily moods found that: A) there was no relationship between mood and immune system function. B) women suffered far fewer health consequences than men from temporary negative moods and events. C) the effectiveness of people's immune systems increased when people experienced good moods and decreased when people experienced bad moods. D) men suffered far fewer health consequences than women from temporary negative moods and events. 22. According to cardiologists Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman, _____ is a behavioral and emotional style characterized by a sense of time urgency, hostility, and competitiveness. A) Type A behavior pattern B) an optimistic explanatory style C) Type B behavior pattern D) a pessimistic explanatory style Page 29 123. Ken delivers fresh produce to health food stores around the city. Laid-back and easygoing, he loves his job because it allows him to meet people and get daily exercise at the same time. Ken is likely to be classified as having a: A) very high risk of heart disease. B) Type A behavior pattern.C) pessimistic explanatory style and chronic negative emotions. D) Type B behavior pattern. 124. Which one of the following people is most likely to be classified as exhibiting a Type A behavior pattern? A) Charlie, a very outgoing, sociable, and fun-loving music major B) Brenda, a quiet, book-loving, introverted librarian C) Bill, a very ambitious, competitive, hostile, time-conscious real estate developer D) Clarissa, a hardworking, friendly, and caring psychiatric nurse 125. Barbara is an accountant who works a lot of overtime toward the end of the tax year to finish her clients' tax returns by the deadline.However, despite the long hours of being under pressure to get the tax returns done on time, Barbara continues to be relaxed and calm. Barbara is: A) showing a Type A behavior pattern. B) in the alarm stage of the general adaptation syndrome. C) using denial and escape-avoidance to cope with stress. D) showing a Type B behavior pattern. 126. Tyler is a very competitive and impatient stockbroker who often gets annoyed over insignificant matters. He has a reputation for being hostile and angry and tends to be suspicious, mistrustful, and to blame others for his losses.Tyler is likely to be classified as having a: A) Type A behavior pattern. B) low risk of coronary disease and ill health. C) Type B behavior pattern. D) low risk of coronary disease but high risk of getting cancer. Page 30 127. Fifty-year-old Marvin is a very successful businessman who exhibits all the classic signs of the Type A behavior pattern. He has suffered coronary problems for the last five years but has not slowed his hectic pace. According to current research, the aspect of his Type A behavior that contributes the most to his health problems is his: A) impatience.B) sense of time urgency. C) hostility. D) competitiveness. 128. The main component of the Type A behavior pattern that predicts the development of coronary heart disease is: A) having a sense of time urgency. B) being a high achiever. C) hard physical work. D) hostility. 129. What has research shown about the relationship between hostility and heart disease? A) Hostility levels are not related to the likelihood of developing heart disease. B) Hostility levels are negatively correlated to heart disease: the lower the levels of hostility, the greater the likelihood of developing heart disease.C) Hostility levels are positively correlated to heart disease: the higher the level of hostility, the greater the likelihood of developing heart disease. D) The correlation between hostility levels and heart disease is much weaker than the correlation between competitiveness and heart disease. 130. In a study described in the text, over 250 doctors were monitored for their health status beginning when they were in medical school. What did the study find over the course of 25 years? A) Those doctors with a Type A behavior pattern were less likely to develop heart disease than those with a Type B behavior pattern.B) There was no relationship between level of hostility and dying from heart disease or cancer. C) Those doctors who scored low on hostility were much more likely to be alive at age 50 than those doctors who scored high on hostility. D) Those doctors who scored high on hostility were much more likely to be alive at age 50 than those doctors who scored low on hostility. Page 31 131. Yoko is very dedicated to her career as a partner in a large, prestigious law firm. She often works sixty hours a week and thoroughly enjoys the challenges of her high-pressure job.Yoko hates to waste time because keeping up with the demands of family life and her career require that she manage her time very efficiently. Although she is very ambitious, Yoko is also a good-natured person who rarely raises her voice and never has an unkind word to say about anyone. Based on this description, you could probably conclude that: A) because of her extremely stressful lifestyle, Yoko probably has very high levels of corticosteroids. B) Yoko is at a very high risk for coronary disease and other health problems. C) because Yoko is low in hostility, her risk of developing coronary disease is no higher than that of anyone else.D) since Yoko is a female, she is unlikely to develop coronary disease despite her Type A behavior. 132. A number of explanations for how hostility predisposes people to heart disease and other health problems are presented in your textbook. Which of the following is NOT one of them? A) Hostile people tend to react more intensely than other people to a stressor and experience increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and the production of stress-related hormones. B) Hostile men and women do not express their anger outwardly, but instead bottle up their emotions and hide their true feelings.C) Because of their cynical attitudes and aggressive behavior, hostile people experience more frequent and more severe negative life events and daily hassles. D) Because hostile men and women are prone to get angry more often than others, they also experience stress more frequently. 133. The Critical Thinking box, “Do Personality Factors Cause Disease? ” discusses the problems involved in answering this question and suggests that in order to disentangle the relationship between personality and health, researchers need to conduct carefully controlled: A) retrospective studies. B) correlational studies.C) prospective studies. D) surveys and interviews. Page 32 134. According to the Critical Thinking box, “Do Personality Factors Cause Disease? ” scientific research has shown that: A) personality traits, such as compulsiveness, assertiveness, and competitiveness are a major cause of physical disorders and ill health. B) a positive attitude can prevent or even cure cancer. C) personality factors, such as hostility and pessimism, are correlated with an increased likelihood of developing poor health, but the research does not claim that there is a direct causal relationship between these variables.D) a negative attitude and chronic negative emotions are a major cause of physical disorders such as heart disease and cancer. 135. Psychologists and other scientists are cautious in the statements they make about the connection between personality and health for a number of reasons. Which of the following is NOT one of those reasons? A) A person's health at any given time is influenced by the complex interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors. B) Personality factors might indirectly lead to disease via poor health habits.C) The vast majority of the studies investigating the role of psychological factors in disease are experimental rather than correlational. D) It may be that disease influences a person's emotions, rather than the other way around. 136. One way researchers try to disentangle the relationship between personality and health is by conducting carefully controlled prospective studies. The important aspect of this research approach is that: A) an initially healthy group of subjects are assessed on variables thought to be risk factors and are tracked over a period of time.B) neither the experimenters nor the subjects know the nature of the research. C) it provides correlational data that indicate how the two variables are related without ruling out the possibility of some third, unidentified factor. D) the subjects, but not the experimenters, know the nature of the research. 137. Studies investigating close relationships and physical health have repeatedly found that: A) close relationships cause more stress and anxiety than does social isolation. B) poor physical health is unrelated to social isolation. C) the lack of social relationships is related to an increased risk of health problems.D) there is no correlation between social support and physical and emotional well-being. Page 33 138. The resources provided by other people in times of need, including emotional, tangible, and informational support, are referred to as: A) social contagion. B) social support. C) the general adaptation syndrome. D) problem-focused coping support. 139. Thelma has a very diverse social network that includes a warm and loving relationship with her husband, close friendships with family members, co-workers, and neighbors, and many social interactions with members of her religious community.According to the results of prospective studies reported in the text, it is very probable that Thelma: A) will live longer than those who have less diverse social networks. B) will not live as long as those who have fewer and less diverse social networks. C) will tend to suffer from the stress contagion effect and have a shorter life expectancy than those who are not as socially engaged. D) will have greater vulnerability to respiratory infections, a higher likelihood of stroke and cardiovascular disease, and an increased chance of suffering from dementia and cognitive loss in old age. 140.Beyond social isolation, researchers who use prospective studies have shown that the people who live longest are those who: A) are genetically predisposed for longevity. B) have consistently avoided making choices about daily activities and leave major decision to their spouse. C) have more different types of relationships, such as being married, having close relationships with family, friends, and neighbors, and belonging to social, political, or religious groups. D) have one very deep relationship with a loved one and a few more superficial relationships with friends and neighbors. 141.Carson is divorced, lives alone, has very few friends, and outside of work he rarely interacts with other people. According to psychological research on social isolation, Carson's lack of social relationships is correlated with: A) poor health and higher death rates. B) good health and lower death rates. C) an optimistic explanatory style and positive emotional states. D) the stress contagion effect. Page 34 142. Which factor has been identified as being as powerful a health risk as smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity? A) competitiveness B) an emotion-focused coping style C) social isolation D) time urgency 43. Which of the following is NOT a potential drawback of social support? A) When other people are perceived as being judgmental, their presence may increase the individual's physical reaction to the stressor. B) Stress may increase when well-meaning friends or family members offer unwanted or inappropriate social support. C) Being too helpful and overprotective, especially when dealing with sick people, may undermine self-confidence and slow physical recovery. D) Individuals who accept social support from others risk being labeled as weak, dependent, or incompetent. 144.Recently, Spencer lost his job, and a long-term relationship ended in a bitter fight. Thinking it might help, Spencer visited his family, but it made him feel worse. The only time he felt better was when he was with the family dog. It is possible that Spencer perceived his family as _____, and the dog as _____. A) providing emotional support; providing informational support B) being judgmental and critical; being nonjudgmental and unconditionally supportive C) providing tangible support; providing remedial support D) being conditionally supportive and nonjudgmental; being judgmental and doggone critical 45. Helena has a large network of social relationships that is comforting to her in times of need. However, because relationships tend to be reciprocal, Helena has to respond to many demands placed on her by friends and family. According to your textbook, which of the following statements is TRUE? A) Helena may find these demands physically and psychologically taxing, especially if any are long term. B) Helena will not be affected adversely by this situation. C) The positive effects of social support always outweigh any potential drawbacks.D) Compared to people with only a small network of social relationships, Helena is likely to be relatively free of stress. Page 35 146. The “stress contagion effect” refers to: A) people becoming upset about negative life events that happen to other people that they care about. B) people dealing with stress by using a coping strategy called distancing. C) the finding that people under stress are more vulnerable to infectious diseases. D) people dealing with stress through positive reappraisal. 147. According to your textbook, women tend to be more vulnerable to the problematic aspects of social support.Which of the following factors do NOT contribute to women's greater vulnerability to the problematic aspects of social support? A) Women may be more likely to suffer from the stress contagion effect because they tend to have larger and more intimate social networks. B) Women are more likely to serve as providers of support. C) Women are less likely to suffer from the stress contagion effect because they tend to have a smaller social network, consisting primarily of immediate family members. D) Women are more likely to become upset about negative events that happen to their relatives and friends. 48. Whenever any of her friends or relatives have problems and are upset, Gilda gets upset too. This example illustrates: A) the tend-and-befriend response. B) the stress contagion effect. C) the distancing coping strategy. D) escape-avoidance. 149. Which of the following statements is TRUE? A) Women tend to rely most heavily on the relationship with their spouse for social support. B) Men are just as likely as women as to experience the stress contagion effect. C) The health benefits of being married are more pronounced for women than for men.D) The more extensive social networks of women can have both positive and negative health consequences. Page 36 150. Robert and Beth are a married couple in their late-30s and have different professional careers. They also have an eight-year-old son named Noah, two cats, a nervous gerbil, and relatives that live in the same city. Based on what you have read in the text, which of the following statements is most likely to be TRUE? A) Beth is less likely than Robert to be upset by negative events that happen to their relatives.B) Robert is more likely to rely on his male relatives than Beth for social support whe