Orsat Gas Analysis Experiment I. Objectives To analyze the dry exhaust gas (DEG) from a combustion system using the Orsat apparatus. II. Apparatus As shown in figure, the Orsat apparatus consists of a water-jacketed 100-m1 burette B connected at its top to a glass manifold M and at its bottom to a leveling bottle L. The glass manifold M is connected to three reagent bulbs called pipettes P1, P2 and P3 via three cocks C1, C2 and C3. Each tube is filed with its own absorbing chemical solution: P1: potassium hydroxide (30 % w/v) to absorb CO2 P2: alkaline pyrogallol to absorb 02 P3: cuprous chloride in hydrochloric acid to absorb CO.

Pipettes P1 and P2 are partly filled with glass tubes to increase the contact surface area between liquid and glass. P3 contains copper wire to protect acid against possible oxidation. The 3-way cock C4 is used to connect manifold M to the atmosphere (via suction pump SP), to connect it to the sampler tube or to isolate the trapped gas. III. Procedure a) Preparatory Steps -Fill the system with water & chemicals as applicable. -By opening one of the cocks C1, C2, C3 at a time and keeping all other cocks close, and manipulating bottle L bring the solution in each pipette to the top mark on the stem of the pipette.

Then close the isolating cock. -Now connect the sampler line to suction pump SP by turning the 3-way valve C4. Operate the pump to purge all air from the sampler line. b) Trapping the Gas Sample -By turning the cock C4 connect the glass manifold M to the sampler line. -Lower bottle L slowly until the water level in burette B is slightly below the zero mark on the scale. Then close C4 and disconnect the sampler line. -Slightly lift cock C4 off its seat to equalize the pressure inside burette B with the ambient pressure. Then raise bottle L gently until water level in the burette coincides with the zero mark.

This ensures that the burette now contains 100 ml of exhaust gas at atmospheric pressure. c) Absorption of Gas Constituents The following steps should be done for each pipette, one at a time, in the order P1 then P2 then P3. -Open cock C1, and slowly raise bottle L to allow the gas to flow into pipette P1 until water in the pipette reaches the (100)-mark. -Slowly lower bottle L to let gas leave pipette P1 and re-enter burette B until the chemical solution in pipette P1 reaches the top mark on its stem. Close C1. -Bring the levels of water in burette B and bottle L to coincide.

Read the scale on burette B to get the volume of CO2 absorbed, measured at atmospheric pressure. -Repeat this procedure a few times until the reading becomes constant which means that all CO2 has been absorbed. Then close cock C1. -For the next pipettes, the volume absorbed is obtained as the difference between the current scale reading and the one just preceding it. IV-a Experiment No. 1: Get acquainted with the apparatus and the procedure by measuring the volume fraction of 02 in atmospheric air. A value of 79% should be obtained. IV-b Experiment No. : Measure the volume fractions of CO2 and 02 in a sample of dry combustion products from the continuous combustion unit in the heat engines laboratory (fired with LPG). V. Requirements 1. Your report about the experiment should be detailed. In particular you should write the combustion equation assuming the fuel composition to be unknown, and representing it by an equivalent hydrocarbon CxHy. Show details of your calculations. 2. Based on the results of the dry exhaust gas analysis, calculate: (a) The atom ratio (y/x) in the fuel formula b) The air/fuel ratio [A/F] (c) The relative air/fuel ratio ? 3. Compare your results under item (2-a) with the volumetric composition of LPG as consisting of 30% propane C3H8 and 70% butane C4H10. v. Observations Ambient Conditions: PA= KPa, TA= OC Zero Reading Ro= ml --> Vsample= 100-Ro= CO2 Reading RCO2= ml --> VCO2= RCO2-Ro= O2 Reading RO2= ml --> VO2= RO2-RCO2= CO Reading RCO= ml --> VCO= RCO-RO2= Volume of Nitrogen --> VN2= 100-RN2=