How have Mycobacterium tuberculosis evolved in response to antibiotic use? Section 1 P1: (Words: 177) Since antibiotics has been discovered in 1920 by a Scottish microbiologist Alexander Fleming, people began to have access to treatments for infectious diseases (Bright). However, over time these M. tuberculosis has evolved and became resistant to antibiotics through constant use and incorrect usage (Bright). It is important to solve this health issue because it has created a serious problem to the people who are infected by diseases since these antibiotics are no longer effective.
It is estimated that approximately 77,000 people were killed by resistant M. tuberculosis in the United States (Bright) and the medical cost to treat infections with antibiotic resistance has reached as high up to 44 billion dollars every year (Larsen). In the article of “Antibiotics Resistance” by Pushpa Larsen, roughly about 70 percent of those 2 million people in the United States who has became infected with diseases within a year were resistant to antibiotics that was being commonly treated in the hospitals (Larsen).
With an overuse and misuse of antibiotics by the human population, it increases the chance of M. tuberculosis to evolve and have the ability to become resistant. Section 1 P2: (Words: 482) As people take antibiotics constantly and antibiotics that treats for a variety of M. tuberculosis, over a period of time it usually results in M. tuberculosis being resistant, and the only way to solve this is to change the human behavior. Since M. tuberculosis can reproduce rapidly within hours or days, the big population of the M. uberculosis causes the increase of adaptation to different environment (Bright). The ‘fast generation’ mentioned in the article of “Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance,” claimed that with such massive population, it also can rise the possibility of mutation in genes which causes variation (Bright). With having more chance of resulting variation among these huge quantity of population in M. tuberculosis, there will be more chance of these M. uberculosis with mutation to be selected for the environment due to natural selection. With M. tuberculosis being able to use specific tools gained from the gene, each can perform different methods of being resistance to the antibiotic’; for example, by taking ‘a gene from another bacterium’ (Bright). Scientists measure the percentage of M. Tuberculosis by using a special tool called, spectrophotometer to shoot out light and count the percentage of M. tuberculosis present in the tube. A certain amount of M.
Tuberculosis will be added into the tube and place it inside the spectrophotometer to measure the percentage of population present in the tube by using a specific light of wave length with a scale pointing to how much light is being present (Ferguson, 2012). With having a higher population in the culture, the less light it will be shown in the spectrophotometer (Ferguson, 2012). When antibiotics are added into the tube, those that are not resistant to the antibiotics are being killed, but those that are resistant survive (Ferguson, 2012).
The measurement will show the amount of population being resistant to antibiotics by the scale shown in the spectrophotometer (Ferguson, 2012). There are no treatments to stop the M. tuberculosis from being resistant to antibiotics. However, we can help solve the problem of more bacteria being resistant to antibiotics by decreasing the amount use of antibiotics and taking antibiotics in the full cycle as prescribed by the doctor (Bright). The amount of antibiotics that people take is about 235 million doses a year, and approximately ‘one third to one half’ of the antibiotics being taken are not needed (Larsen).
A research has found that patients have been demanding antibiotics from doctors even though the patient’s cold or other infections does not require any antibiotic use (Bright). The antibiotic misuse by people is that patients usually stop taking antibiotics once they feel that their cold or viral diseases is much better (Larsen). This can lead to the resistance in M. tuberculosis and ‘develop a stronger defense’(Larsen). By changing the human actions towards the use of antibiotics, it can help solve the problem of bacterium evolved in response to antibiotics.
Section 2 P3 + P4 combine (Words: 407) The measurement of spectrophotometer to determine the percentage of M. Tuberculosis and the theory of natural selection both determines an effective way of observing how M. Tuberculosis evolved in response to antibiotics. By measuring the percentage of M. Tuberculosis present in a tube, the method of using spectrophotometer helps scientists to observe and witness the evolution of how M. Tuberculosis became more resistant to antibiotics overtime (Ferguson, 2012). The resistance of M. tuberculosis in ntibiotics due to evolution theory of natural selection, those that favors in the natural selection tends to survive and reproduce to carry on their traits (Bright). As they reproduce, an immense volume of culture is being duplicated which increases more chance of variation among the tremendous population (Bright). Scientists uses tool like spectrophotometer to observe the rate of M. Tuberculosis being killed, and how those survived bacteria regained its immune towards antibiotics the next time it is being added to the culture (Ferguson, 2012).
As each time an antibiotic is being added to the culture, those without resistance dies and those with, remain alive (Ferguson, 2012). Those that does live, increases and continues to grow (Ferguson, 2012). But, when an antibiotic is being added into the culture again in the next round, the rate of resistance of M. Tuberculosis increases in terms of building up a defense and using methods as in gaining a gene from a bacteria to become immune to antibiotics (Bright). Overtime, the increase number of antibiotics added into the culture rapidly escalates and boost up the number of M.
Tuberculosis being resistant (Ferguson, 2012). By looking at the theory of natural selection, those with best suited traits tends to be selected for, and reproduce in massive quantities which increases a greater possibility in variation. Either an antibiotic is being ameliorated from the former antibiotic or a completely recent developed antibiotic is invented, M. Tuberculosis will always find a solution to become more resistant to the antibiotic until it completely becomes unscathed to them (Bright). As more M. uberculosis gain further ability in building defense against the antibiotics, the more they reproduce those immune duplicates, the more difficult it will be for the human to fight against these M. Tuberculosis since they develop resistance. With the overpopulation of these cultures, the probability of variation is very high due to mutation in the gene (Bright). The method of measuring the increase in resistance helps benefits scientists to understand how M. Tuberculosis has evolve in response due to antibiotics and natural selection by using spectrophotometer.
Section 3 P5 + P6 combine: (Words: 429) With the science application use of measurement of M. Tuberculosis percentage resistant to antibiotics and the theory of natural selection effects us socially in terms of causing chaos among the society with being unable to cure these M. Tuberculosis as they continue to become more resistant. Patients usually demands and gives pressure on doctors to provide them with antibiotics even when not needed (Bright). This usually is the reason to why M.
Tuberculosis evolve and become resistant to antibiotics rapidly as more variation is present by the massive reproduction of M. Tuberculosis (Pitman, 2004). If the doctor suggests the patient to not take antibiotics, because it might cause the resistance towards antibiotics, then it is likely that patients will still insist to take those antibiotics just to cure their infections or cold. Such aspect of the patient shows that they have no tolerance towards the future crisis of the uprising war between antibiotics and M. Tuberculosis.
When a doctor insists their patients to take antibiotics as described in the instructions of the cycle, patients usually feel that their freedom of choice is being pressured and mostly they will go with their own opinion and decision making towards the use of antibiotics (Tekstiin, 2009). As patients sense that their cold or infectious disease has become better, they usually stop taking the antibiotics (Tekstiin, 2009). The reason for this is because some patients think that their immune system have the ability to fight against the bacteria present in their body.
Research have found that taking antibiotics are very detrimental to the body in terms of damaging the good bacteria, as well as decreasing the competition between the harmful bacteria and the beneficial bacteria existing in your body (Tekstiin, 2009). In the future when people are infected by infectious diseases, the infection in the human body will not be effected by the antibiotics since they have evolved resistance towards antibiotics (Tekstiin, 2009).
With this reason, as more people get infected with diseases, the antibiotics will be ineffective and cause turmoil among the society because doctors will be unable to cure them since the resistance in M. tuberculosis continues to rise rapidly. As a large percentage of the people becomes infected with diseases that are unable to be treated, the world could lose a massive population because more and more people are infected by the disease each day. The science application of measurement on resistance in M. Tuberculosis and the natural selection links to the factor socially with the cause of ineffectiveness of most antibiotics towards M.
Tuberculosis, causing a huge loss in human population. Section 3 P7 + P8 combine: (Words: ) Scientists observe the measurement of percentage in M. Tuberculosis by looking at the curve of the increasing resistance in antibiotics as the natural selection provides the chance of stronger resistance due to variation of M. Tuberculosis; and with this, scientists are able to predict that it will effect the society economically in terms of medical costs to treat resistance in antibiotics. With people constantly overusing antibiotics for treating their infections or cold; overtime, those M.
Tuberculosis that survived recovers by reproducing a large quantity of population and develop a defense against the antibiotics ("Antibiotic resistance," 2008). As more antibiotics are given and added to kill the M. Tuberculosis, they become more resistant each time and soon, they will become completely resistant to antibiotics within a short period of time. As the number of resistant M. Tuberculosis increases, the more time and money scientists will have to invest on research and create antibiotics to treat the infected growing human population.
With the experimentation, tools and a variety solutions of antibiotics, it all comes with a large amount of money. The healthcare system might find themselves drowning and finding difficulty in finance since a large amount of money will be spent on medical research and care ("Study on the," 2009). Also, they will find trouble in restoring their stability in health care for the people when several people are dying since no treatment can be cured ("Study on the," 2009). However, it is not only the scientists and the healthcare association who suffers, but also the infected patient’s families as well.
To treat such infection with resistance towards antibiotics it comes to a huge cost in finance for the patient’s family ("Study on the," 2009). The prediction of the high medical cost in the future by looking at the increasing rate of resistance of M. Tuberculosis in antibiotics by the scientists show how this problem of the uprising resistance towards antibiotics effects us economically when no cure can be treated. Section 4 P9: (Words: 309) The social limitations of the measurement in the increasing percentage of M.
Tuberculosis developing into a newly developed antibiotic resistant bacteria links with the natural selection of massive reproduction in the M. Tuberculosis that increases the chance of variation among the huge population, that causes the rising probability in resistant to antibiotics, which creates a numerous number of patients to suffer severely when no treatments are to be able to completely cure the continuous developing new bacteria resistant to antibiotics. Understanding the measurement of the change in the increase rate of new evolved M. uberculosis effects not just the people but also the society in whole as well. Overtime, as people continuously take antibiotics to treat infections, those survived M. Tuberculosis develops into a new stronger bacteria resistant to the antibiotics, due to natural selection of variation among the huge population of the culture (Larsen). As scientists creates new antibiotics to treat such newly developed antibiotic-resistant M. Tuberculosis, these variation in the M. Tuberculosis will continue to become stronger and develop immune towards these new antibiotics (Bright). By applying the theory of evolution of M.
Tuberculosis being more resistant to antibiotics by natural selection of variation in overpopulation, it impacts on the people socially with infections that continuously rises in population and keeps on developing into a new and stronger M. Tuberculosis that is unable to be treated, it will cause a major problem in our society where a large percent of the human population are suffering from the continuous developing new variation of M. Tuberculosis (Bright). With the huge population of culture, variation among these population is high which increases the rising rate of new developed M.
Tuberculosis resistant to antibiotics that causes an issue in our society of people to be troubled by the fact of the continuous treatment to cure for unrepeated variation in M. Tuberculosis. Section 4 P10: (Words: 345) The measurement of the rising percentage of the huge population in newly developed antibiotic-resistant M. Tuberculosis, and the overpopulation in natural selection that leads to the high possibility in variation effects the people economically in terms of the difficulty in treatment necessary to cure the patient’s continuous infected disease that is antibiotic-resistant with the variation in the M.
Tuberculosis, that causes billions of dollars to treat this non-stop evolution of M. Tuberculosis. As doctors treats patients with antibiotics for their infected disease, some M. Tuberculosis in the infected disease are killed and some remain alive (Pitman, 2004). Those that survives, reproduces in large quantities and in those massive population, the high probability of variation that becomes immune towards antibiotics among the huge population rises (Pitman, 2004). When scientists invents new antibiotics to treat for the newly developed M.
Tuberculosis, the survived M. Tuberculosis evolves and becomes more resistant to antibiotics because of natural selection (Pitman, 2004). M. Tuberculosis adapts to the antibiotics and evolve in response through the constant use of antibiotics that causes them to become more resistant (Pitman, 2004). With people spending roughly about 44 billion dollars every year on treating the continuous appearing new variation of M. Tuberculosis, it has created a burden in finance when there are no treatment to completely obliterate the variation in M.
Tuberculosis since they always develop resistance to antibiotics (Larsen). In order to treat the continuous antibiotic-resistant variation in M. Tuberculosis, it will effect tremendously on the infected patient or their family and the hospital in terms of the finance in the medical cost ("Study on the," 2009). In the end, people will end up paying endlessly on antibiotics to treat these non-stop evolving resistant variation in M. Tuberculosis. With the continual of M.
Tuberculosis in evolving into a newly antibiotic-resistant with the natural selection of variation because of the massive population that increases the possibility of mutation in gene, it will cost economically on the people to spend on the treatment to cure for the never-ending variation in M. Tuberculosis that is resistant to antibiotics. Works Cited Antibiotic resistance. (2008). Retrieved from http://www. sciencedaily. com/articles/a/antibiotic_resistance. htm Bright, K. (n. d. ). Applied evolution unit: Evolution of antibiotic resistance. Retrieved from http://evoled. dbs. umt. edu/lessons/background. htm Ferguson, D. 2012, May 14). Measuring antibiotics resistance. Personal Communication . Larsen, P. (n. d. ). Antibiotics resistance. Retrieved from http://www. naturalchoice. net/articles/antibiotics. htm Pitman, S. (2004, December). Antibiotic resistance. Retrieved from http://www. detectingdesign. com/antibioticresistance. html Study on the economic impact of antibiotic overuse and antibiotic-resistant infections. (2009, October 19). Retrieved from http://www. news-medical. net/news/20091019/Study-on-the-economic-impact-of-antibiotic-overuse-and-antibiotic-resistant-infections. aspx? page=2 Tekstiin, T. (2009, November 11).
The long-term effects of antibiotics on health and immunity. Retrieved from http://inhumanexperiment. blogspot. jp/2009/11/long-term-effects-of-antibiotics-on. html Bibliography Davies, J. , & Davies, D. (n. d. ). Origins and evolution of antibiotic resistance. Retrieved from http://mmbr. asm. org/content/74/3/417. full Kunkel, D. (n. d. ). Antibiotic resistance: Delaying the inevitable. Retrieved from http://evolution. berkeley. edu/evosite/relevance/IA1antibiotics2. shtml Microevolution & antibiotic-resistant bacteria. (2012, April 18). Retrieved from http://alexa2b. edublogs. org/2012/04/18/microevolution-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria/