Job design describes how a given set off activities in a firm are organized. It answers the following questions; what needs to be done, how it is supposed to be done, the number of activities to be done and more so it defines the systematic manner in which the specified activities need to be done (Lawler & Edward, 1973).
One of the elements utilized in job design is job enlargement. Job enlargement entails combining the tasks which require similar skills and are more or less similar to each other. It is done to motivate workers. Job enlargement helps in reducing the firm’s expenditure on salaries.
Despite the later, the employee’s efficiency is reduced since the principle of division of labor and specialization are not applicable. Job rotation is another element utilized in job design. It refers to swapping individuals’ positions in an organization. It helps an individual to learn to undertake all the tasks in a particular department and more so boredom from doing a particular task for a long period of time is reduced. Job engineering can also be used in job design. It defines the machines to be used for a particular task, who to handle them, working procedures and standards, plant layout and expected output.
Job engineering saves time, money and ensures specialization. A customer service professional job can be improved by ensuring that the person feel important in the smooth running of the of the organization, giving her breaks, offering in-training, allowing her to schedule and carry out her duties, giving credits where they are due and providing her with the appropriate machines such as computer and cell phones. This increases specialization, her output increases, and the quality of her work increases.