Comm 1332 Comprehensive Exam ReviewTo thoroughly prepare for your exam, the following review process is recommended:1.
Review lecture notes and powerpoint files for each chapter (copies on webct).2. Practice OUTLINING (coordinating and subordinating: framing main point/subpoint/sub-subpoint information).3. Finally, specific knowledge of the following will prove useful:
The 3 purposes of public speaking To inform, to persuade, to entertain
- 2. The 9 elements that affect public speaking (sender, receiver, message, medium, etc. )
- 3.The different phases of listening (discriminative, comprehensive, empathic, critical, etc. … know what’s involved in each different phase)
Disruptions to speech process (interference) … know what the external barriers are to listening, and what the internal barriers are to listening … which are the greater barriers (internal or external)?External Barriers: Physical noise, message problems (confusing language/poor organization), presentation problemsInternal Barriers (GREATER BARRIERS): Inattentiveness, bad habits, receiver apprehension, trigger words (positive & negatives), attitudes5. Criteria for evaluating speeches (five general considerations, plus what three specific criteria)Overall considerations – commitment, adaption, purpose, freshness, ethicsSpecific criteria – substance, structure, presentation6. The four elements of audience dynamics – know each, plus be able to distinguish between attitudes, beliefs and values Audience Dynamics: Motivations – our needs & wants, explains why people behave as they do, people will listen, learn, and remember a message only if it relates to their needs, wants or wishes Attitudes – feelings, likes/dislikes Beliefs – what we know or THINK we know about someone/something Values – what we regard as an ideal state of being, what’s proper; influence attitudes and beliefs EXTRA – age, gender, education, group affiliations, sociocultural background7. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs – know the specifics of each level Physiological Needs – food/air/water/comfort Safety – freedom, control, tradition Belonging – group membership, acceptance, friendship, nurture Esteem – self-esteem, respect, pride, recognition, independence, success Self-actualization – realize potential, challenges, growth and development, satisfaction8.
The steps in speech preparation (what’s the FIRST STEP? ) Analyze your audience, select topic – topic focus, select supporting materials, design speech, outline speech, practice presenting9. The differences between general purpose, specific purpose, thesis, and preview statements (be able to recognize what each looks like) Purpose – clear idea of what you want to accomplish; able to state overall message in single declarative sentence10. Test(s) for assessing soundness of evidence/sources (specifically, what are the criteria for assessing soundness of information on the Internet) Authority – evaluate credentials of author, sponsor Accuracy – search for replication (links that verify info), grammar/spelling tip-offs Objectivity – beware of biases and “too good to be true’s” Currency – determine date of info, posting Coverage – evaluate for breadth, depth11. 6 C’s of language – what “C” uses amplification? Clarity – makes speeches understandable Color – adds punch to your message Concreteness – reduces misunderstandings Correctness – enhances your credibility Conciseness – keeps you from wasting your audience’s time Cultural sensitivity – is an ethical imperative12.
Different speech designs (especially the 3 different designs for persuasive speeches) Problem-Solution – explains problem, shows solution Refutative design – counter opposing views Monroe’s Motivated Sequence Design Attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, action13. Verbal and nonverbal elements of speech delivery: are disfluencies verbal or nonverbal? What are proxemics? Verbal – pitch, rate, loudness, variety, articulation, pronunciation, enunciation, dialect Non-verbal – facial expression, eye contact, movement/gestures, distance, personal appearance, practice Disfluencies – (VERBAL) are any of various breaks, irregularities, or non-lexical vocables that occur within the flow of a speech Proxemics – study of how humans use space during communication14. The four methods of speech delivery (impromptu, memorized, manuscript, extemporaneous … which have we done in this course? which is used for accuracy? ) Impromptu – off the cuff (state points, give reason or example, restate) Memorized – problematic Manuscript – most useful when speaker seeks accuracy, eloquence Extemporaneous – planned & rehearsed15. The functions of informative speaking (pay particular attention to prepersuasive function) Introduces/shares new ideas, skills Shapes listeners’ perceptions – can sever prepersuasive function, preparing for later persuasive message Sets agenda of public concern – directs attention to selected subjects, influences what we feel is important, but STOPS SHORT of persuading Reveals, clarifies option for action – but DOES NOT ask listeners to choose any one16. The fundamental forms of proofs in persuasion (ethos, pathos, logos, mythos … know definitions of each) Logos – appeal to reason Pathos – appeal to personal feelings, passions Ethos – appeal of speaker (sincerity, trustworthiness, conviction) Mythos – appeals of traditions and values of our culture17. Three different types of reasoning used in arguments (from principle, from observation, from analogy … be able to recognize these)18.
Argument fallacies – slippery slope, red herring, begging the question, ad hominem, either-or, confusion of fact and opinion, hasty generalization Slippery slope – misuse of facts; assuming that once something happens, it will establish an irreversible trend leading to disasters (Feeds on fear, not fact) Red herring – using irrelevant material to divert attention from the issue Ad hominem – attacking the person instead of his/her argument Either-or – creates false dilemma; makes listeners think they only have 2 mutually exclusive choices and fails to acknowledge other options Begging the question – asserting what you fail to prove; employs colorful language to disguise inadequacy of proof19. Techniques used in effective ceremonial speaking (identification and what? ) Identification Speech creates feeling that speakers and listeners share goals, values, emotions, memories, motives and cultural background. Heart of ceremonial speaking because speakers promote identification through: use of narrative, recognition of heroes/heroines, renewal of group commitment Magnification Focus on certain good qualities, use language effectively, save the best for last20. Types of ceremonial speeches: specifically, know the different types of tribute speeches; also know what type of ceremonial speech builds enthusiasm and what type coordinates a program and sets the mood Speech of tribute – praiseworthy accomplishments, achievements, eulogies (celebration of life), toast Acceptance speech – expresses gratitude and thankfulness, acknowledgement, dignity, humility, modesty Speech of introduction – make the speaker feel welcomed, establish/strengthen ethos of speaker, prepare audience for speech that will followSpeech of inspiration – arouses an audience to appreciate, commit to, and persue a goal, purpose, or set of values or beliefs After-dinner speech – casual speech to celebrate special events/occasions, accomplishments, set goals and should be brief Master of ceremonies – host of an event; evaluate expectations, plan good opener, introduce participants, know schedule and timetable, plan comments ahead of time, know where awards are located, practice presentation, mealtime logistics, end program strongly21. Methods for problem-solving in small groups (what are the steps in Dewey’s reflective thinking sequence? What’s cultural gridlock? What’s groupthink? Define objective/problem, generate possible plans/solutions, evaluate plans/solutions and choose best, develop plan of action, evaluate resuts Cultural gridlock – inability to communicate because profound cultural differences Groupthink – development of an uncritical acceptance of group decisions22. Different types of leadership behavior, leaders, leadership styles (be able to distinguish between transactional leadership and transformational leadership; contrast free-rein leader with autocratic with participative) Autocratic – makes decisions without consultation, uses rewards/punishments to control members (you work for this kind of leader) Participative – democratic, seeks members’ input (you work with this kind of leader) Free reign – leaves members free to decide what to do (you work in spite of this leader)23.
What are the 4 different types of supporting materials? Which do Americans view as the highest form of knowledge? What purpose do supporting materials serve in persuasive speaking? Facts & statistics (Americans view as the highest form of knowledge) – ground speech in reality Testimony – give witness to ideas and/or proposals (expert, lay, prestige) Examples – illustrate, illuminate (brief, extended/factual hypothetical) Narratives – tell a story Meant to authenticate, detail, illustrate main ideas24. Know definitions of persuasive terminology such as boomerang effect, sleeper effect, great expectation fallacy Boomerang effect – audience reacts to suggestion of too much change by opposing position more Great expectation fallacy – hoping for major change on basis of single persuasive effort Sleeper effect – delayed reaction following integration25. What are positive trigger words? Negative? Does one or do both act as internal barrier to listening? Positive triggers – values traditions Negative triggers – ethnicity, sex, religion Both are internal barriers to listening26. What’s the difference between a fact, an inference (or claim), and an opinion? Which type of listening distinguishes between these? Facts – verifiable Inferences – assumptions, incomplete data Opinions – adding person judgments27.
Know the correct citation form for an online source using APA Contributors' names (Last edited date). Title of resource. Retrieved from http://Web address for OWL resource28. Study key terms on lecture powerpoints