The social loafing concept is most common in academic tasks - in many higher level institutions of learning - assigned to students to undertake in groups. In many cases social loafer students, believe that academic achievement particularly in colleges is a collective responsibility. Thus they prefer assignment to be done in groups yet they never put in the much effort to enhance the quality the work.

They act as parasite in the group other than promoting symbiotic relationship. Social loafing, at times is perpetuated or influenced.Individuals who identify with communities whose cultural value put emphasis on collective responsibilities always find it easier to undertake group responsibilities. This is in contrary to person whose culture put strength in individual participation. The individualistic culture in the United State of America therefore grooms people who find it easier to work alone rather than to work in groups. Another attribute that affect individual’s participation in group is the expectance valence theory.

In most cases performance is based on individual contribution.However, participant in group work are never satisfied with mode of assessment of contribution during group discussion. Individual participations therefore fulfill the expectancy valence theory. This is because it reveals strength in recognition of individual performance and desired reward. This link is weak during group work. Individual expectation in the group is always low and the fact that the value of the outcome is divided among the group members greatly reduces active individual participation there by increasing social loafing Individuals want to be treated fairly by the group.

They want their contribution to the group to be rewarded accordingly. In addition they are concerned that the procedures used to allocate rewards is fair, and that their concerns are treated in a considerate fashion. When individuals feel they are not being treated fairly they may withhold contributions, withdraw from the relationship altogether, or possibly change their perception of the situation. Minimization of social loafing effect will therefore motivate individual participation in group work. This will increase the quality and utilitarianism value of group output and participation.

Effort identification of the participants, improved evaluation of their performance and fulfillment of the expectation of the coworkers, has been identified as values that would assist in suppressing the effects of the social loafers. The simplistic modality, to reduce the effect and impact of social loafing, is through putting in place mechanism, that would ensure that the effort of the individuals are readily identifiable. Another tactic is to minimize the size of the group to a smaller and manageable number and then increase member’s commitment to successful task performance.In most sceneries, the examiners never show much emphasis on group work. This consequently, affects the moral attitude of individuals towards group work.

There is need to increase the apparent importance of the group task. Persons are unique in term of the view they hold. With regard to this individual contribution should be considered as unique and not redundant. Human beings feel in- superior when their contribution is not appreciated. They then opt to lock their in built potential to participate in group work thereby encouraging social loafing.The cohesive nature of the group greatly enhances group participation.

As a team leader, it is you responsibility to ensure close bond between group members, to promote their contribution on group activities. Justice and fairness should be highly practiced during group work. When members feel that they are not treated equally, they tend to withdraw their contribution in group functions. Adams (1963) stipulated that, Many people are averse to this sucker effect and may decide to withhold effort because they believe that others plan to do so.They object to being a sucker because it violates norms of equity, reciprocity, and social responsibility. Equity theory suggests that individuals are sensitive to others receiving similar rewards for less effort, and effort may be adjusted to reflect individual perceptions of fairness.

Research into the sucker effect and contributions to public goods in situations of group reward indicated that individuals sometimes adjust effort based on fairness judgments regarding the situation.Those who perceive fairness withhold less effort and make greater contributions. It is therefore prudent to observe justice and fairness during group discussions. This will keep the ego of the participant high and motivate them to perform better. To conclude, social loafing during group work is unethical and should not be encouraged since information should be shared freely and openly.

It is therefore time for the social loafers to arise and be social facilitators.