Lately the high power density DC/DC converters & technologies are reviewed with the focal point on topologies, machinery, packaging and power density. Since the demand for higher density, compact & more competent products has increased, with a variety of choices regarding power ratings & even for stout packaging. The respective design & manufacture companies are under pressure due to commercialism & competition being faced these days. DC/ DC converters are implied to be customary modules; nevertheless the main requirements depend on particularly the auxiliary functions of the host unit since they have erratic requirements.

This quality promises a relevant tailoring of the mechanism to the specific program. Especially in Telecom systems, DC/DC converters are often employed in order to regulate precise voltage, to simplify the system modifications & idleness. A digital DC converter has been designed to research the benefits of flexibility, control of electronics, by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Cleveland State University depicting that the digital converter is an enhanced adaptation of the traditional DC/DC converter.

Safety, high standard of efficiency, reliability, resistance to shock & vibration, EMC including & the 0. 5 inch – 12. 6mm profile are the most important requirements for a converter these days. Buck Converter, buck boost converter, boost converter Buck converter (step-down converter) Non isolated -Buck converters are used for low input voltages like 12V, while higher input voltages like 48V require a more viable option like the transformer isolated converters.

The Interleaved Quasi Square wave buck has acquired the new technology of voltage regulator module or the VRM, proving a single Buck converter to be adequate with a 15- 20 A output currents, however more than one Bucks are used in parallel order to reduce output filter capacitance constraint in higher currents. The flux current is low at center leg due to the incorporation of inductors of interleaved Bucks into similar core.

Boost converters (Step-up converter)

Boost converters are used for giving out high output voltages compared to the low input voltage they receive. It has one storage element and switches, a diode and transistor. These are semi-conductor switches. A filter made of inductor and capacitor is installed to increase the output voltage. Buck boost converters Buck boost converters as name indicate have dual functionality. When two different topologies are used together it is called buck boost converter. The output voltage is either greater than or less than the input voltage.

The two different topologies used are, inverting topology that gives output voltage always of the opposite polarity to the input voltage, and a buck boost converter in which buck converter is followed by boost converter in which output voltage can be lower or higher from the input voltage but of same polarity. What peripheral knowledge will be helpful for feedforward PWM controller and power switch? Digitally controlled dc-dc converter has additional benefits that it can digitally control such system. It is more flexible to use and auto control over electronic systems.

Digital DC converter has an advantage over conventional DC converter that it digitally processes all the signals. DC/DC converters perform accurately the voltage regulation of electronic devices. Power switch of DC DC converter must manage the load of the devices for which its output voltage varies. Use of pulse width modulation (PWM) regulates the output voltage and also controls input from power switch attached to the dc dc converter. PWM works with ON and OFF signals. A similar voltage proportional to the ON and OFF of the PWM is produced by the low pass filter that is associated with the output switch.

Excess voltage is sent back to PWM controller which then varies and regulates output voltage by turning ON times the voltage is sent back. The use of simulation software programs (P-Spice orcad) Simulation software programs (P-spice orcad) can be used for efficient use of dc dc converter. The software can support the buck converter, boost converter and buck boost. It can be used in online environment and can be used for calculations for the converter and show voltage regulation. It’s easily downloadable and installed software compatible with Windows 98, XP, NT4 etc.