After finishing the research and experimentation, you are required to write a (maximum) 250-word, one-page abstract. An abstract includes the a) purpose of the experiment, b) procedures used, c) data and d) conclusions. It also includes any possible research applications. The abstract should focus on work done since the last fair.
A research paper should be prepared and available along with a project data book, and any necessary forms or relevant written materials. A research paper helps organize data as well as thoughts. A good paper includes the following sections: 1. Title page - title of the project must be brief, simple and catchy 2. Statement of problems/objectives - the nature & scope of the problem should be presented with clarity. Two types of objectives may stated:
1. General Objective - this is related to the problem as given in the early part of the section
2. Specific Objective - this states the purpose of each experiment conducted.
3. Methodology - provides enough details so that a competent worker can repeat the experiments 1. Materials/Equipment - the exact technical specifications, quantities and source of method of preparation for all materials used should be given. Specifically, built equipment used in the study must be described and the description accompanied by a picture 2. Treatment/General Procedure - the manner & sequence by which each experiment or set of observations were done & how measurements were obtained should be described in detail. Avoid using the "recipe style" when stating the step-by-step procedure. Use the narrative form in the past tense.
4. Results and discussion - this may be divided into sub-sections describing each set of experiment or observations. 1. Findings - the data maybe presented in full & discussed descriptively in the test or these maybe summarized in tables, pictures & graphs. The statistical test used to determine the possible significance of the finding should be described. Tables, pictures & graphs should make the presentation of the data more meaningful. 2. Analysis of Data - the interpretation of the findings are discussed & the significant features shown in the tables, figures or graphs are pointed out.
5. Conclusions - the general truth implied or illustrated by the results should be clearly stated. The evidence based on the results should be summarized for each statement.
6. Recommendations - consists of suggestions on future actions such as a new direction of research or further experiments to be performed, practices that might be adapted or discard in order to attain certain goals or objectives.
7. Bibliography - a list of the references used in guiding the research work and writing and paper.
Cooking Oil - Made Candle (Focusing on Thermal Physics and Energy) Abstract.
The study aims to produce a low-priced, high-quality candle by using used cooking oil as a major component. The following candle compositions were used: 100 percent paraffin wax; 90 percent paraffin and 10 percent oil; 80 percent paraffin and 20 percent oil; 70 percent paraffin and 30 percent oil; 60 percent paraffin and 40 percent oil; 50 percent paraffin and 50 percent oil. The firmness, texture, and light intensity of the candles were tested and compared.
Results of the tests showed that the candle made from 100 percent paraffin wax had the lowest melting rate, lowest amount of melted candle, and a light intensity of 100 candelas (cd). The 90:10 preparations had the next lowest melting rate and amount of melted candle. The other preparations ranked according to the proportion of used cooking oil in the candle, with the 50:50 preparation performing least comparably with the 100 percent paraffin wax candle.
Introduction: Candles are made not only for lighting purposes but for many other uses such as home décor, novelty collections, as fixtures for big occasions (weddings, baptismal , etc.), and as scented varieties for aromatherapy. Candles are made from different types of waxes and oils. Cooking oil is a major kitchen item in Filipino households. It is also used substantially in fast-food outlets, where it is used in different stages of food preparations. Ordinarily, used cooking oil is discarded. This waste oil pollutes and clogs canals and sewerage systems. The sound of cooking oil as the prime material for making candles may sound cliché. Yet, in this investigatory project, we will prove that cooking oils can be made to candles.