This paper aims to study the insecurity in Nigeria which is widely caused by Islamic sects known as Boko Haram in Nigeria and its effects on security. This paper will also find if there is a connection between poverty and Insurgency that has led to a great unrest in Nigeria, the aim of writing is to evaluate if poverty can lead to insecurity and Insurgency.
Nigeria a country in the western part of Africa, a country that is blessed both in human and material resources has of recent been plagued with a serious problem of “insecurity” which is gradually becoming a serious threat to its sovereignty and existence as a state. Thus many pundits are meant to believe that the current state of insecurity in Nigeria has a connection with the crises of poverty currently facing the country as it were. Thus it is on this note that this term paper will try to study the causal relationship between poverty and insecurity and relating this pandemic with the Boko-Haram sect in Nigeria as its case study.
Conceptualizing the Boko- Haram Insurgency:
Walker, (2012), sees “Boko Haram as an Islamic sect that believes northern politics has been seized by a group of corrupt, false Muslims. It wants to wage a war against them, and the Federal Republic of Nigeria generally, to create a “pure” Islamic state ruled by sharia law”. While Marchal, (2012), provided us with four analysis and interpretations to the “Boko-Haram question” in Nigeria in which he noted that “Boko Haram has to be understood in four different ways that draw different recommendations on the way to tackle the problems it presents.
Firstly, it refers to the long history of the region and the recurrence of radical Islamic movements. Secondly, Boko Haram has deep roots in the social and economic marginalization of a large section of the northern states population. A third understanding of Boko Haram emphasizes the revenge dimension and questions the behaviour of the law enforcement agencies, their poor respect for the rule of law and the militarization of any response to challenges to the central state.
The fourth vision sees Boko Haram as a tool used by northern Nigerian elites to express their grievances against the lack of interest showed by the central state. Lastly because of its developing connections with al-Queda in the Islamic Maghreb and possibly al-Shabaab, Boko Haram is changing the scope of its grievances and providing the ground for a lasting confrontation between radicalized Muslims and others in Africa”.
(A) What is poverty? What is Insurgency? (C) How does poverty leads to insurgency? (B) Are there any other reasons or issues that lead to Insurgency aside poverty?
Hypothesis: a. Poverty Leads to Insurgency b. Poverty does not lead to Insurgency Methodology: This research will be based on the primary research method. To have a more clear and dependable research, I will interview expects on security issues in Nigeria that have been directly involve in handling the Boko Haram Crisis.
The data analysis will be based on the findings expressed by the experts on the Insecurity and poverty leading to Insurgency in Nigeria. Is there any connection between Poverty and Insurgency? Using the frustration-aggression theory as plausibility, one respondent said that there is a strong connection between poverty and insurgency because if one is poor, hungry and does not have access to basic human necessities he can easily verge his frustration and anger into committing crime. Another respondent said that that if one is poor he/she could easily be influenced to perpetuate and participate in any form of illegality. What are the causes of Poverty in Nigeria?
In tracing the structural causes of poverty in Nigeria, Aigbokan, (2000), observed the following as some of the causes of poverty in Nigeria: 1. Political instability and corruption by the elites in which through their actions and inactions has literally hindered and subvert any concerted effort by the government and other donor agencies in alleviating it. 2. Long history of ethno-religious and politically motivated violence is another cause of poverty as observed by Aigbokan, (2000). 3. Lack of stringent and regulatory and monitoring system. 4. Income inequality and preferential treatment in the allocation and distribution of resources that subsists in the state by a few conspiratorial cabals also tends to perpetuate poverty.
Base on some of the responds I received from the experts in Nigeria who sees the case as treat to the Nigeria economy, they attributed the insecurity and poverty to, 1. Corruption: corruption is one major issue Nigeria has been trying to bring to an end; they leaders are strictly working at their own interest not having the entire masses at heart which leads to poor masses involving themselves in several activities for survival. 2. Lack of Political will from leaders: the political leaders make promises to the masses which in return brings high hopes to the masses and at the end refuses to fulfill all what they promise which later lead to frustration and causing the people to join groups that have made promises to fulfill if they carry out those activities. 3. Misguided ideologies:
4. Bad governance and mismanagement of resources: The Nigeria political leaders has not been able to achieve any form of resource management where proper allocation of this revenue is channeled to the masses in return poverty becomes a norm and people bring to seek for survival. What are the impact of the Boko Haram insurgency?
Base on the responses I received they were able to trace the impart of Boko Haram to be 1. Threatening of the very foundation and sovereignty of the Nigerian state, because of the Boko Haram insurgency. 2. Discouragement of foreign investors. Where international investor are not willing to come to the country for business because the security of these investors are not secured, this later lead to low revenue to the economy and loss of jobs increase living the citizens helpless. 3. Loss of lives and properties. They killings and activity of this sect have left several families homeless, poor, sick and insecure and as the day goes by its increasing and the government not been able to bring this crisis to an end. 4. Under development in all ramifications. It takes time to develop a country and war always leads the country back. This is the case of Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. 5. Capital flight.
What are the Solution(s) to the Present challenges? 1. Creation of employment for citizens. Where people have a job for regular income and basic needs can be met. 2. Leadership should be accountable to voters. Our leaders should be accountable for what they receive from the natural resources and after used allocation of the income should be channeled to the right places where the poor masses can gain from it. 3. Corruption and mismanagement of resources should be discouraged in all ramifications. The Leaders should be able to fight other people who see corruptions as a norm this can be possible if the leaders themselves are not corrupt. 4. Youth empowerment. The empowerment of the youth is paramount because the youth are the hope of tomorrow and if proper education can be focused at the youth, they will be great minds to develop the country without thinking otherwise. 5. The politics of hate and violence should be discouraged. Nigeria should be a place where culture is not centered as a separating tool between sates, we one Nigeria and one Nigeria we should be. So it’s my responsibility and that of the political leaders to encourage this kind of mindset and poverty will be greatly unseen then people will be secure leading the country out of insecurity.
Conclusion: The term paper aim to look at the problem facing Nigeria, the great increase of poverty which leads to poverty my research helped me to see poverty leading to insecurity where people forced to live life they never wanted to because the only option they see is to join groups to destroy those who have stolen their natural resources using it for their benefit without considering the masses. I finally concluded that poverty leads to insecurity where the basic needs of the masses are avoided by the political elite.