In today's world, most people communicate through the use cellular phones. It's hard to believe that fifteen years ago cell phones were a rarity. People may not be aware of what is the history chronicling the dawn of the cell phone to its current state. According to www.

symatech. net, the history of cell phone truly began with the creation of radio technology. Two-way radios were, after all, the ancestors of the cell phone. It wasn’t until the 1950s that what people would recognize as a cell phone was created.

These were the cell phones that allowed direct dialing.These phones, called the MTA for Mobile Telephone System A, were created by Erickson and were released in 1956 in Sweden. They were very heavy and bulky, and the phones were usually stalled in cars. Only about 150 people used the MTA system. In 1957, Leonid Kupriyanovich created the radiophone, or a wearable mobile phone, in the USSR. These phones required a base station to operate, but each base station could be used by several customers.

His phone weighed only 0. 5 kg, making it much more portable than the MTA.The First Generation, or 1G, or the first truly portable cellular phone began in 1983. It was called the Motorola DynaTAC 8000X. The FCC approved it for use in the United States.

Motorola developed the technology for cellular phones for decades and this particular phone took 15 years to come to market at an expense of over 100 million dollars in research costs. The DynaTAC800X was extremely lightweight for its time and only weighed about 28 ounces. It was 13 inches x 1. 75 inches x 3.

5 inches and was known as the Brick for its shape. It was largely developed with the help of Dr.Martin Cooper of Motorola. From 1983 to the end of the 1980's cell phones grew in popularity due to the innovations in cellular networks that were able to handle phone calls in either one area or hand them off to other areas.

While most cell phones weren't made to be handy, all phones were made for permanent installation in the car. For a while the term "car phone" was extremely popular. Besides car phones, there were a few models that came in tote bag type configurations that can easily hook up to a car's battery, via the DC outlet to make calls.There were also a few models that came as briefcases, to hold large batteries necssary to make phone calls.

Second Generation (2G) or the cellular phones from the early 1990's were able to work on mobile phone systems such as GSM, IS-136 (TDMA) and IS-95 (CDMA). Digital mobile phone networks were in use in the United States in 1990 and in Europe by 1991. 2G mobile phones use digital circuit switched transmissions. This ultimately enabled quicker network signaling, lowering the amount of dropped calls and increasing call quality.As 2G digital networks were online, most of the time, they replaced analog network frequencies, effectively making them obsolete. Phones based on 2G technology were much smaller than the brick telephones of the mid to late 80's.

Most 2G cellular phones were usually in the range of 100 to 200 grams, plus they were hand held devices that were truly portable without the need for a large battery. Advances in battery technology, as well as computer chip technology also helped to make 2G cell phones much smaller than their predecessors.With these innovations, cell phone usage soared. The Third Generation cellular phone is the technology that is currently available today and it is commonly referred to as 3G. While 3G came only a few years after 2G, mainly due to many innovations in technology and services, standards for 3G are usually different depending on the network. It is usually stated that 3G is not necessarily a rigid standard, but is a set of requirements that most networks and cell phone providers follow.

There are two main requirements; they include 2 Megabits of maximum data rate indoors and 384 kbits for outdoor use. 3G mobile phones usually include innovations to receive much more than phone calls, for instance, SMS text is available and some 3G phones also offer email and Internet access. Currently technologies are continuing to improve and new innovations such as streaming radio and TV, as well as Wifi are currently breaking into the market. For most people, cell phones really brought them benefits in their everyday life.

According to Center on Media and Child Health (2007), these are the advantages of having cell phones: for health and wellness, programs that deliver personalized text messages that help a person with dieting, remembering to take medications, or encouraging them to quit smoking. For instance, one company is exploring the ability to send photos of what you are eating via your phone’s camera so you can communicate with a nutrition advisor about that food. For safety, the benefits of cell phones in emergency situations are undisputed.The Pew Internet ; American Life Project found that 74 percent of Americans say they’ve used a cell phone in an emergency. In addition, some emergency agencies are encouraging cell phone users to put “ICE” (in case of emergency) in front of names of people in your cell phone directory whom emergency personal should call in case of an emergency. New phones using GPS technology allow parents to track the location of a phone and thus, hopefully, their child.

For convenience, no one can argue the convenience of being able to reach your child immediately, or a child being able to reach his parent, in the case of a sudden change of plans.Also, the Pew Internet ; American Life Project reports that approximately 41 percent of cell phone users say they multitask by making phone calls while commuting or waiting- a time-saving option almost unheard of 10 years ago. Although cell phones are useful, it can still brought risks and disadvantages to people. For health risks, cell phones are found to be addictive, and teens that use cell phones the most were most likely to be anxious and depressed. Text messaging is increasing used by bullies to torment their victims.Cyber bullying, psychological harassment in text or instant messaging is more often perpetrated by girls, who initiate inappropriate messages or spread damaging gossip.

Just like other repetitive strain injuries that can result from computer use and other repetitive tasks, eye strain and “digital thumb” can result from focusing continually on a small screen and typing on small buttons. And because of the close proximity to the mouth where germs can be passed from breathing, coughing and sneezing, most cell phones are crawling with bacteria. Additionally, many people use their phone everywhere, even in the bathroom.Some teen cell phone users are likely to be woken at night by incoming text messages or calls, and are therefore more likely to be tired and less able to focus throughout the day.

The Pew Internet ; American Life Project found that 39 percent of cell users ages 18-29 say they are not always truthful about where they are when they are on the phone. Parents often experience sticker shock when they receive the bill for their child’s cell phone. Special ring tones, text, picture and video messaging, downloadable games, overage minutes and connecting to the Internet can all be very expensive and heavily used by teens.The impact of cell phone use on environments is very much reduced when text-based messages (SMS) instead of audio calls are used. A major advantage of SMS lies in the fact that messages can be sent and received in a highly unobtrusive way, even when bystanders are quite close. In addition, SMS is compatible with conditions where phone calls are totally impossible: either with high levels of noise or when total silence is to be maintained, so that even “sotto voce” phone conversations would be angrily classified as disturbances (e.

g. n school classes or during musical performances).Cell phones tend to weaken the control of all formal institutions over their members’ behavior, because they open the opportunity for all members to reduce or interrupt their formal role involvements by engaging in alternative role behavior and completely private interactions anywhere and anytime (e. g.

during office hours, school lessons or military duties and when driving a car or piloting a plane). According to www. educationworld. com, parents want their child to be able to bring cell phones to school.They argued and argued with their school district saying that cell phones are necessary. According to Mathews (2001), schools come under pressure to allow kids to use cell phones, because their parents are eager to keep in touch at any time whenever needed.

According to Ling (2000), while audio calls may readily be repressed because they can be easily observed, it is much harder to prevent kids from receiving SMS messages during school hours. According to www. eHow. co.

uk, along with their books and school supplies, many students make their daily trip to school with their trusty mobile phone.These pocket-sized tools can do anything from make a standard phone call to surf the web. The presence of cell phones presents a host of options and challenges for today's students. Mobile phones can be a helpful academic tool, or a hurtful academic disruption depending upon the attitude and use pattern of the student owner. Mobile phones are undeniably convenient.

Because of mobile phones, students never have to look for a pay phone or wonder about the location of a friend. These ubiquitous communication tools allow students to reach their peers and their parents instantly.Everything from ordering a pizza to calling to check movie times is easier with a cell phone, as the communication device you need is right at your fingertips. Picture taking and Internet surfing are readily available on most cell phones. This aids students in gathering the information that they need for school or accessing their email or school website. Students benefit from this technology availability as it allows them to create more polished academic products with less effort than before the ready availability of cell phones.

Many parents argue that cell phones keep students safe.A parent is never more than a phone call away when a student is carrying their cell phone. The presence of a cell phone also ensures that students can call parents or emergency personnel in the case of an unforeseen emergency. While most students will never have to use their cell phone as a safety device, the knowledge that it could be used as such puts parents at ease and keeps them paying the monthly cell phone bill. The biggest lament of teachers in regards to cell phones is that they lead to student distraction and off task behavior.Texting a friend is a tempting diversion that many students select over listening to a lecture or completing a class assignment.

If not silenced, cell phones can ring during class, drawing everyone's attention away from the lesson and disrupting the flow of learning. Many teachers worry that this added distraction negatively impacts students' school performance as it stops them from dedicating their full attention to their studies. While useful, many of the features of cell phones can also be used to engage in inappropriate behaviors.Taking inappropriate pictures and then "sexting" them to a boyfriend or girlfriend is a growing problem.

These pictures often end up in the wrong hands, which leads to others gaining access to the private photos. Teens often fail to recognize the long-term implications of inappropriate behavior and engage in the behavior without considering the consequences. The consequences for inappropriate behavior are real and long-lasting. Once distributed, sexted photos are almost impossible to contain. The presence of these racy photos can limit the teens options in the future and severely mar their reputations.