Introduction1.1. Background of studyAIDS is a disease of human immune system that caused by the infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This disease is a prolonged period without a symptom.
The earlier stage of infection, a person may experience a certain period of influenza illness. The progresses of the illness will likely to disturb little by little the human immune system and making the person easier to get the later stage of infection. This disease usually does not affect towards people who has working human immune system. (Wikipedia, 2013) This disease was first in the west-central Africa during the early twentieth century. Aids have caused approximately 30 million deaths in year 2009, and approximately 34 million people in the world are living with HIV in the year 2010.Since that, AIDS is considering as a pandemic disease that can be spreading actively around the world.
However, this HIV disease cannot transmit through some bodily fluid such as saliva and tears. HIV transmitted via unprotected sexual intercourse, contaminated blood transfusions, hypodermic needle and from mother to child during pregnancy, deliver or breastfeeding. (Wikipedia, 2013) The key strategy control and prevent the spreading of the HIV disease, is suggested to people to had a safe sexual intercourse by using condoms and needle exchange programs.AIDS has no cure or vaccine, but there is a treatment called antiretroviral treatment that can delay the course of the disease and the people infected may live like normal much longer. (Wikipedia, 2013) The objective of this paper is to investigate the factors or determinants of HIV/AIDS among young women in the country can be the most important variable that influences the rising number of reported cases and to proposed steps or measures that must taken. This requires an understanding of the problems and the relationships of the determinants towards the studies.
(Wikipedia, 2013)1.2. Problem statementMalaysia was reportedly to have the first case of people infected with HIV/AIDS in year 1986; it has spread in the country especially towards young women. (Unicef, 2009) According to Ministry of Health (MoH) statistics as at end December 2008, an average of 10 cases reported each day in 2008. Since 1986, there were 84,630 people tested with HIV-positive in Malaysia and in 1988, 11,234 people were died of AIDS.
Based on the figure 1.1.1, it shows that the number of people get infected and died because of HIV/AIDS has increased from 1986 until 2006. The rising of HIV infections and high-death rate of AIDS is because of low levels of understanding and misconception that HIV and AIDS relates only to certain “high-risk” groups leads some people to continue practising unsafe behaviours and deny the need to undergo a HIV test.The probability that the actual figures could be more than the official number of infection can be accepted strongly, which means there is a possibility 1:125 ratio of people in Malaysia is HIV-positive. Based on table 1.
1, since the first case of HIV made its debut in this country from 1986 till December 2011, number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) is estimated 81,000. About 26% of reported infections are amongst young people aged between 13 to 29 years old.HIV in Malaysia is predominantly male as they constitute 90% of cumulative HIV cases of whom majority are injecting drug user (IDU). However, the trend of female to male ratio is shifting from 1:99 in 1990 to 1:10 in 2000 and to 1:4 in 2011. (MoH, 2012) The proportion of women reported with HIV has increased dramatically since 1990. In which women made up 1% of new reported infection that year, while in 1996, only 4 % of new reported infections were amongst women and girls.
As end of 2008, the number tripled where women accounted for 19% of new reported infections. One factor in this rise may be the increased coverage and accessibility of HIV testing for women. (Unicef, 2009)1.3.
Research questionsI. Is there any relationship between the dependent variable (i.e. the HIV/AIDs among young women) and the independent variables (i.e.
poverty, population, migration and education level? II. Which is the most important factor that contributes to the increase in the number of HIV/AIDs among young women?1.4. Objectives of study1.
4.1. To analyze the trend of HIV/AIDs among young women in Malaysia from year 1991 to 2010 1.4.
2. To determine the relationship between the HIV/AIDs among young women as dependent variables and the poverty, population, migration and education level 1.4.3. To identify which factors that contributes most significantly to the increase number of young women cases reported living with HIV/AIDs1.
5. Significance of studyThe study will give benefits to several parties such as researcher, government and academician in considering some factors that influence young women living with HIV/AIDs in Malaysia. This study will personally give researcher better understanding and knowledge about the factor that determined the HIV/AIDs among young women in Malaysia. This study also gives researcher opportunity to apply all relevant economic theory that influenced in the real world issues.This study can be beneficial to government where as the government can use the result for this study to focus on which factor to contribute to HIV/AIDs among young women in Malaysia. Thus, give a picture or guidelines to government’s decision making on to overcome the HIV/AIDs among young women problem in Malaysia.
This study can help student to gain more knowledge and better understanding on the problem of HIV/AIDs among young women in Malaysia. This study also shows the step on how the study is properly done in order to obtain the desired results by using the application of econometric in the process and interpreting data.1.6. Scope of studyThis research focuses on the trends of variables that have affected the HIV/AIDs among young women in Malaysia.
The purpose is to investigate the relationship between HIV/AIDs among young women, poverty, population, migration and education level in Malaysia. This study also examines the impact between the independent variables on the dependent variable. The data used in this study were collected from various sources such as Malaysia’s Department of Statistics, Malaysian Aids Council, Ministry of Health, world Data Bank, DataMarket.com and Thomas Reuter’s DataStream. It is an annually data from the year 1986 until 2011.
1.7. Limitation of studyI. Technical constraint In order to analyze and process the data correctly and consistently will required specific statistical methods. The data also have to processes by using specific software. For this study, the E-views 7 is been used to analyze and process the data.
Due to lack of knowledge in using this software, it take a lot of time to understand on how to use the software and how to interpret the result generated by the software. These factors limit the findings for the result. ii. Limited sample size of time seriesStudies based on the time series data will face problem of the scarce or limited reliable and consistence sample size data. Most of the required data that available in the internet are limited and unreliable.
Therefore, in order to solve or improve the situation, the researcher has to drop the variable or replace with other variable that are the best represent the objective of the study.2. Literature reviewThere are many studies carried out to examine or investigate the determinants of the HIV/AIDs among young women. From the studies, many variables regardless the economics or non-economics variable has found to be significant in affecting the HIV/AIDs among young women. This chapter describes a brief review on poverty, population, migration and education level and its relationship with HIV/AIDs.2.
1. HIV/AIDS (NST, July 2012) Malaysian AIDS council president, Professor Dr Adeebah Kamarulzaman said that she hopes the governent would take the newly issued guideline seriously and pledge more funds to adopt the new revised treatment. “our current Malaysian guidelines are set for 350 and below CD4 cell counts,but we are still unable to reach Cambodia’s success, where they could reach out 80% of the people living with HIV population, offering them treatment and intervention programmes.” In the statement showing the iniatives of the government to spends on the reduction and prevention of HIV/AIDS disease in the country.More over, the government has set so many progarmmes to help those infected by the disease. In order to get the key affected populations to come step forward and get tested to determine whether they carry HIV or not is currently become the main issues.
Many of the youngsters have yet confirmed they status and do not tested has made the intervention becomes harder. This is just to help the affected population to survive longer and live like normal citizens. The government believes so many thing can be done and accomplish as they already has the structure, good place to medicate with provided best well-trained doctors and nurses, moreover the campaign has open-mind of the societies to help and gives supports towards the affected populations. (N.D.
Purwanti,2013) A study on Public Budget Management of HIV/AIDS intervention.Based on the literature review it stated that the concern on the disease in Indonessia which has rising and the Indonessian government has set a policy on its budget to reduce the spreading of the HIV/AIDS in its country. Even the Non-government Organization (NGOs) participated in the programs as well, to help the people to reduce and also prevent the disease spreading.2.2.
PovertyJelke (2012) The Journal of Navigating the AIDS Industry: Being Poor and Positive in Tanzania. The study shows how poor people living with HIV/AIDS in Tanzania navigate a myriad of actors, agencies and organizations to obtain the aid they need to survive. It focussed on community-based organizations which establish network of care through which people obtain care, treatment and financial support. John (2008) Poverty and the Impact of AIDS on Older Persons: Evidence from Cambodia and Thailand.
In this article, it discussed the potential link between poverty and AIDS has been a recurrent theme in the discourse concerning the epidemic. Poverty is sometimes seen as the contributing or even the root cause of the epidermic while at the same time HIV/AIDS is seen as undermining the economy and impoverishing communities, families, and individuals.Tanusha and Barbara (2011) studied that poverty may impede the growth in the number of HIV/AIDs case. When they revealed that there is a mixed formal and in formal settlement, face many challenges of poverty, compounded by caregiving and HIV/AIDs.
Booysen (2004) revealed that poverty is likely to deepen as the epidemic takes its course. The socio-economic impact of HIV/AIDs combine to create a vicious cycle of poverty and HIV/AIDS in which affected household become ill are forced giving up their jobs, household income will fall. This study confirmed that the experience of HIV/AIDs affecctedhouseholds in terms of chronic and transient poverty and income mobility and poverty dynamics.2.3.
PopulationTanusha and Barbara (2011) , believes that a possible major contributing factor to the increasing of the HIV/AIDs pendemic is the increasing number of population. When they revealed that there is a mixed formal and in formal settlement, face many challenges of poverty, compounded by caregiving and HIV/AIDs. Landis (2005) study that HIV/AIDS stands out for the large allocation of resources it receives relative to its contribution to the total burden of disease; so too, though less dramatically, does reproductive and maternal health. Disease categories receiving less support than might be expected on the basis of their contribution to the burden of disease are injuries and nutritional disorders.
Peter et all (2006) AIDS has exacted a devastating toll on population and health over the last 25 years. The number of people living with HIV has surged from a few thousand in the 1980s to 40 million by 2005, and has spread to all world regions (see Figure 3, and Box 1, page 8). The epidemic has triggered an upsurge in previously rare infections and malignancies and is contributing to an explosive TB epidemic around the world. HIV has reversed hard-won gains in child survival and life expectancy in sub-Saharan Africa and in a growing number of countries and communities worldwide.
2.4. MigrationRoy (2013) in the journal of Migration and AIDS in Belize, it refers to situations which place individuals at risk either economically, and/or for exposure to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS. It reveals clear and vulnerability in both economics of belize and in terms of exposure to STIs including HIV/AIDS. Jonathan et all (2005) The journal of Migration and HIV/AIDS in South Africa. The terms of migration and HIV/AIDs is been examined separately in South Africa, in which the researchers said it is still far from the understanding in detailed on how and what extend the two are interconnected.
The connection of this two terms is difficult to unravel because the disease arrived in the country at a time when population mobility and systems of labour migration were under going rapid transformation. Lucia and Damien (2012) The journal of Mines, Migration And HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa. This journal stated that Swaziland and Lesotho are the countries with the highest HIV prevalence in the world. In the studies examines whether the mining activities in bordering country affect the disease. In the result interpretation, suggesting that miners’ migration into South Africa has increased the spread of HIV/AIDS in the country origins.
Girma et all (2008) results that the understanding of respondents about the relationship between movement of people and disease incidence was quite informative. More than 81% of the respondents affirmed that movement of people increases incidence and transmission of diseases. On the contrary, about 17% of the respondents felt that movement of people has nothing to do with diseases.2.
5. Education levelJannajameya (2012) A study on the impact of different methods of health education on ‘HIV/AIDS’ awareness among adolsecent student at Utkal Bharti Science College, Palasuni. In this literature review, the study suggestted on different methods of giving the AIDS/HIV education. It suggest not only in terms of lecture but also in different ways such as visual-aid, group discussion, textbook and radioplays. They also distibute questionaire to see the impact of the method of health education corresponding to the methods.
At the end of the results, the comparison is made to see the most effective solution of health educations towards the students. Rimjhim and Jeffrey (2005) in the journal of the awareness and quality of knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS among women in India, it examines the determinants of women’s knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS using data from nationally representative survey in India.Through their survey, there are 45 percent of the iIndian women is aware about the disease, they have very limited understanding of the disease transmissin and prevention. In their results, it shows that the effect of several measures such as education and mass media on the awareness is different from their effect on quality of knowledge.
Robert (2009) This article estimate the direct and indirect effects of female primary education on HIV/AIDS rates in Tanzania. They using a recursive framework for education, income and infections based on equations that allows them to obtain dynamic estimates of effectiveness. In their findings, the indirect effect is working through changes in income outweighs the direct positive effect on education on infections, which impled that female education is effective as an intervention to lower the disease in Tanzania.