2012 International Conference on Economics Marketing and Management IPEDR Vol. 28 (2012) © (2012) IACSIT Press, Singapore Future Leaders’ Perception on Baby Dumping Issues In Malaysia Nazni Noordin 1+, Zaherawati Zakaria 2, Mohd Zool Hilmie Mohamed Sawal 3, Zaliha Hj Hussin 4 and Kamarudin Ngah 5 1,2,4 Faculty of Administrative Science & Policy Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, P. O Box 187, 08400 Merbok, Kedah. Malaysia 3 Faculty of Information Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA, P. O Box 187, 08400 Merbok, Kedah Malaysia 5 Centre for Policy Research and International Studies (CenPRIS), Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Pulau Pinang
Abstract. The increasing cases of outrageous acts of dumping new-born babies and foetuses in Malaysia recently alarming the Malaysian to take serious attention in handling this matter. This research was about teenagers’ perception on baby dumping issue. Out of 7,535 populations at four selected schools at the area of Bakar Arang State Assembly under Sungai Petani Parliamentary, Kedah, 400 students were selected as respondents. In this study, simple random sampling was used. This research used Descriptive Statistic and Pearson Correlation for data analysis purposes.
Data were collected from July until October 2010. Three hypotheses were tested and accepted. The result indicates that there were positive relationship between awareness towards consequences of free sex, knowledge on sex education and religious belief towards baby dumping cases. The significant of this study was awareness creation on consequences of having free sex among youngsters as well as parents and school administration and also inclusive of religious bodies/agencies in taking seriously on the impact of this issue towards our social development in global era.
Conclusion/Recommendations: The recommendations were made to the parties concerned in this issue in order to find the best solution in curbing this problem. Keywords: Baby dumping, Teen, Awareness, Sex Education, Religious Belief. 1. Introduction Lately, Malaysia is facing a serious issue regarding on baby dumping which getting more chronic and cause a lot of attention. This social problem appears every day in newspaper and mass media.
From the period of January until July 2010, public were shocked, appalled, dismayed by the increasing reported cases of abandoned babies, some of whom were found dead. This incident indirectly indicated that something is wrong in our society . What is actually the issue of baby dumping? It is not only just dumping new-born babies but also refers to discarding or leaving alone, for an extended period of time, a child younger than 12 months of age in a public or private setting with the intent to dispose of the child.
The worse situation of this issue also can be seen when a girl gives birth in a school bathroom at night then throws the baby into the garbage or in the toilet bowl, also when a baby flung in the chicken coop, a baby swaddled in newspapers left squalling by a fly-infested dustbin, a baby abandoned under the harsh sun beating down on a wet rice field, a baby stuffed into a cabinet drawer, a baby left on the doorsteps of people's home with notes or in a mosque. It is so embarrassing, sad and worst scenario that happened in our society. + Corresponding author. Tel. : +604- 4562519; fax: +604- 4562234 E-mail address: [email protected] itm. edu. my. 137 Statistics from the Malaysia Welfare Department for this year, from January to April 2010, reported that 111 unmarried young girls were pregnant. The figure, however, is just the tip of the iceberg as many cases go unreported and pregnancies terminated. It also reported in New Straits Times on 23rd July 2010, the body of a baby girl found in a bag at a bus stop near the Sultan Ismail Hospital, Johor Bahru in the morning. Also there a baby found buried. New Straits Times on 18th July 2010, reported that a fetus was found buried by the roadside in Jalan 12, Bandar Puteri Puchong, Selangor.
Baby dumping is not the solution to a life problem and it could be charged under Section 317 of the Penal Code which carries a maximum jail term of seven years or fine or both according to the Malaysian law. For the past few years there are many newborn babies have been found, dead or live in the most unlikely places like rubbish dump. For instance, The Malay Mail on 26 July 2011  reported that a fetus with the umbilical cord intact was found in a garbage can at Pulau Mutiara wholesale market in Jalan Makloom, Penang.
This shows clearly that “baby dumping” is really serious problem that currently happened in our society. 2. Problem Statement Table 1. Statistic of baby dumping cases from the Headquarters of Royal Malaysia Police (PDRM): By - State from 2005 until 7 April 2010 Cases of Baby Dumping Reported in Each State from 2005 until 7th April 2010 States Number of cases Selangor 105 Johor 83 Sabah 65 Sarawak 34 Negeri Sembilan 24 Pulau Pinang 22 Perak 19 Pahang 17 Kedah 17 Kelantan 10 Terengganu 5 Melaka 3 Kuala Lumpur 2 Perlis 1 Total 407
Based on Table 1, the statistic from the Headquarters of Royal Malaysia Police (PDRM)  indicated that there were 407 cases of baby dumping, for the past five years starting from 2005 until 7th April 2010. On average, there are 68 cases every year and these cases keep increasing. While in Figure 1. 2. 1, it shows that, there are 472 babies found dumped nationwide since 2005 until 16th August 2010. In year 2010 alone, it already recorded 65 cases up to 16 August 2010. That is means average 8 cases per month solely in year 2010 and this figure is not included the cases that not reported.
According to Federal Criminal Investigation Department (CID) Director Commissioner Datuk Seri Bakri Zinin, this year alone (2010), as at 16 August 2010, 65 dumped babies had been. As compared to 42 cases during the same period last year (2009), there is an increase in these cases . Recently, the Cabinet also informed that there were 21 recorded cases of students who got pregnant out of wedlock between 2006 and 2010. Then, what about the unreported and unrecorded cases? Public belief that the figure more than what we can imagine.
After all the shocking incidents proven by the data produced by PDRM and Welfare Department, we found a strong base to do this study. 3. Methods & Material A simple random sampling technique was conducted among 400 students (out of total 7535 students) from Form One until Form Six (Upper Six) in secondary schools at the area of Bakar Arang State Assembly under Sungai Petani Parliamentary, Kedah. The schools involved were Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan 138 Ibrahim, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Sungai Pasir, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Khir Johari and Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Bandar Sungai Petani in Sungai Petani, Kedah.
The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) in getting descriptive statistic and correlation. 4. Results & Discussion 4. 1. Profile of Respondents Out of 400 respondents, there were 183 (45. 75%) male respondents and 217 (54. 25%) female respondents. This finding showed the dominant of female respondents in this study. Regarding the age group, the respondents were in the age of 13 years old (18 students or 4. 50%), followed by 14 years old (51 students or 12. 75%), 15 years old (44 students or 11. 00%), 16 years old (97 students or 24. 5%), 17 years old (94 students or 23. 50%) and lastly 18 years old and above which is 96 students or 24. 00%. The highest respondents in this study was 16 years old, followed by 18 years old, 17 years old, 14 years old, 15 years old and the lowest respondents were 13 years old. The race of respondents in this study consist of three major races in Malaysia which is Malay, Chinese, and Indian and the balance was other races. From the finding, it can be concluded that the highest race in this study was Malay, which consist of 242 students (60. %), followed by Chinese, 75 students (18. 75%), Indian 67students (16. 75%) and the lowest was other races which consist 16 students (4. 00%). 4. 2. Result of Findings H1: There is a significant relationship between awareness towards consequences of free sex and baby dumping issue from the secondary school students’ perspective. Table 2. Awareness on consequences of free sex towards a perspective of baby dumping issue Awareness towards consequences of free sex 0. 396** 0. 000 400 Baby Dumping Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N **.
Correlation is significant at the 0. 01 level (2-tailed). There was a significant relationship between awareness towards consequences of free sex and a perspective of baby dumping issue from the secondary school students’ perspective whereas P =0. 000 and r = 0. 396. Significant level is P ; 0. 05 (P = 0. 000). So, the researcher accepts the H1. This means, the awareness towards consequences of free sex has an influence towards perspective of the baby dumping issue. This finding was also supported by APWLD Annual Report 2010 .
H2: There is a significant relationship between knowledge on sex education and baby dumping issue from the secondary school students’ perspective. Table 3: Knowledge on sex education towards a perspective of baby dumping issue. Knowledge on sex education 0. 445** 0. 000 400 Baby Dumping Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N **. Correlation is significant at the 0. 01 level (2-tailed). There was a significant relationship between knowledge on sex education and perspective of the baby dumping issue from the secondary school students’ perspective whereas P = 0. 000 and r = 0. 445.
Significant level is P ; 0. 05 (P = 0. 000). So, the researcher accepts H2. This means, the respondents agreed that knowledge on sex education is important in order to prevent or reduce the number of baby dumping that happen in Malaysia. Besides that, most of the respondent agreed 139 that by learning sex education, teenagers will be more matured and responsible to themselves and having knowledge on sex education is important to prevent free sex among teenagers. H3: There is a significant relationship between religious belief and baby dumping issue from the secondary school students’ perspective.
Table 4. Religious belief and a perspective of the baby dumping issue. Religious Belief 0. 386** 0. 000 400 Baby Dumping Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N **. Correlation is significant at the 0. 01 level (2-tailed). There was a significant relationship between religious belief and a perspective of baby dumping issue from the secondary school students’ perspective whereas P = 0. 000 and r = 0. 386. Significant level is P ; 0. 05 (P = 0. 000). So, the researcher accepts H3. Religious belief also plays an important role in order to prevent baby dumping that increase from time to time.
Other than that, most of respondents also agreed that religious belief need to apply in their daily life activity. This finding was also supported by the Azmi (2010)  and Coleman & Testa (2007). 5. Conclusion As a conclusion, awareness towards consequences of free sex, knowledge on sex education and religious belief showed the significant relationships with the baby dumping issues in our country. Most of the respondents agreed that these three variables have a significant impact on baby dumping cases.
It is important for the teenagers to understand the consequences of free sex so that they can prevent the unwanted pregnancy at the young age. Besides that, the knowledge on sex education is important to ensure the teenagers have a better understanding about their body so that they will not easily involve in free sex which can lead to the baby dumping. On top of that, the important of religious belief and practices also play a vital function. Every religion has lay down and taught about the dos and don’ts, about the sin and reward, and all religion prohibited the act of free sex.
In order to prevent it, the government, schools, parents and teenagers should take necessary actions to stop this baby dumping issue from becoming worst. 6. Recommendation In order to cope with this baby dumping cases, government should come out with several policies and programmes. First of all, the government may incorporate sex education in school curriculum as part of a holistic approach to tackle baby dumping cases. This approach is needed in order to provide awareness and better understanding of reproductive system and health at school level.
Besides that, the government also can restructure or add the syllabus in certain subject such as “Pendidikan Islam” or “Pendidikan Moral” in order to create awareness and highlighted the consequences of social problems like free sex and baby dumping. The government also should promote Islam as a way of life especially to the Muslim youth as we can see nowadays; most of the people who involved in baby dumping were Muslims. Islamic scholars and Ulama’ must take this responsibility to explain to the community about Islam.
However, it is important for the religious persons to use suitable method according to target group in performing this task. The government also can bring the Ulama’ or others religious person from other religion to give talk to the teenagers based on their belief especially when there is a program for teenagers as well as when there is a national campaign to curb with this kind of social problem. Drastic step by the government in categorizing baby dumping as a criminal amounting to murder if it meets with all the legal specifications is also can be introduced.
The government can give another chance to the guilty parents if their baby is found alive but if the baby is found dead, the guilty parents need to be penalized under this criminal act. 140 Government also can help to curb this problems by exterminate pornographic materials from internet and electronic multimedia. These pornographic materials also one of the biggest factors that can contribute to the baby dumping issues because it will influence teenagers to do bad things. It is also recommended that the government come out with new rule to restrict the teenagers below 18 years old to check-in hotel or motel without parents or guardian.
This rule will able to reduce free sex among the teenagers. Besides government, parents also should actively play their role in coping with this issue. For instance, they should discuss “openly” about sex and things related to it with their kids. Even though this topic still “taboo” in certain culture but it will prevent teenagers to get wrong information about sex from wrong sources. Weak family ties also one of the contributing factors in the rising cases of baby-dumping. It is a signal to all the parents not to concentrate and busy with their works and forgets to spend time with their children.
As caring parents, we should hug, kiss, love and give more attention to our children before other persons do it for them. 7. Acknowledgements Our sincere thanks goes to our colleagues in UiTM Kedah, Malaysia for whom we have great regard, and we wish to extend our warmest thanks to all those who have helped us with the creation of this paper especially to Abdullah Fathi Muslim,Izzatul Nadiah Isa, Noor Atiqah Idris, Nurul Farakhin Zahrin and Nurzawani Abd Salam. 8. References  Dali, A. (2010), “Gejala buang bayi meningkat”, Kosmo , 17 August, pp. 6. 2] New Straits Times (2010), "Eight held over selling of babies" available at: http://www. highbeam. com/doc/1P1188506529. html (accessed 26 July 2011)  New Straits Times (2010), "Foetus found buried by http://www. nst. com. my/nst/articles/27jani/Article (accessed 26 November 2010) roadside" available available at: at: at:  New Straits Times (2010), "Newborn found in plastic bag", http://www. nst. com. my/nst/articles/28sarr/Article/index_html (accessed 26 November 2010)  The Malay Mail (2011), "Foetus of boy found in garbage can", available http://www. mmail. com. y/content/45796-foetus-boy-found-garbage-can (accessed 26 July 2011)  PDRM (2010) “Baby Dumping Statistic” available at: http://www. rmp. gov. my (accessed 26 November 2010)  The Star (2010), “CID Chief: 472 babies found dumped since 2005”, available http://thestarmobile. com/jsp/news/viewNews. jsp? newsID=151204=19 (accessed 16 August 2010) at:  Coleman, L. M. and Testa, A. (2007), “Preferences towards sex education and information from an ethnically diverse sample of young people”, Sex Education, Vol. 7 No. 3, pp. 293-307.  Asia Pacific Forum on Women, Law and Development (APWLD) Annual Report 2010. 141