when a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response.
Classical conditioning
something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism, the presentation of food

a reflexive reaction that is reliably produced by an unconditioned stimulus, dog salivation

unconditioned stimulus (US),

unconditioned response (UR),

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a previously neutral stimulus that produces a reliable response in an organism after being paired with a US, a ringing bell

a reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by a conditioned stimulus, dog salivating to ringing of a bell

conditioned stimulus (CS)

conditioned response (CR)

the phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together, food and bell ringing together
acquisition
the gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the CS is repeatedly presented without the US, bell rings without food
extinction
conditioning where a CS is paired with a stimulus that became associated with the US in an earlier procedure, when bell is associated with food
second-order conditioning
the tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period.
spontaneous recovery
a type of learning in which the consequences of an organism's behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future.
operant conditioning
Behaviors that are followed by a "satisfying state of affairs" tend to be repeated and those that produce an "unpleasant state of affairs" are less likely to be repeated.
law of effect
reinforcers are presented at fixed-time periods, provided that the appropriate response is made.

a behavior is reinforced based on an average time that has expired since the last reinforcement.

reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been made.

the delivery of reinforcement is based on a particular average number of responses.

fixed-interval schedule (FI),

variable-interval schedule (VI),

fixed-ratio schedule (FR),

variable-ratio schedule (VR),

something is learned, but it is not manifested as a behavioral change until sometime in the future.
latent learning
a mental representation of the physical features of the environment.
cognitive map,
or learning that takes place largely independent of awareness of both the process and the products of information acquisition.
implicit learning,
The adaptive ability for organisms to transfer learning of one particular instance to another very similar case is evidence of:

generalization.
post-acquisition.
bias.
discrimination.

generalization.
Which is NOT an example of learning?

A baby reflexively pulls back her hand when it is exposed to a hot burner.
A dog sits down every time his owner says "Sit."
A college student studies for a second exam after failing the first exam in a class.
A fish comes to the top of its tank when its owner approaches.

A baby reflexively pulls back her hand when it is exposed to a hot burner.
Like classical conditioning, operant conditioning:

requires the mind as an explanatory device.
is free from explanations involving the mind.
focuses only on unobservable behaviors.
is subjective.

is free from explanations involving the mind.
Schedules of reinforcement are based on the fact that conditioned behaviors:

often continue or even become strengthened by irregular reinforcement.
only occur if given a reinforcement after each behavior.
always become extinct after a short period of no reinforcement.
often become strengthened through habituation.

often continue or even become strengthened by irregular reinforcement.
The studies of observational learning in primates using tools show that:

observational learning clearly results in better tool-skill acquisition in the monkeys.
observational learning prevents the primates from successfully using tools.
observational learning shows no effect on primate tool use.
monkeys raised by their mothers are better at observational learning.

observational learning clearly results in better tool-skill acquisition in the monkeys.
A neuropsychological patient who experiences severe problems with explicit learning is most likely to have _____ implicit learning.

intact
impaired
nonexistent
modest

intact
_____ most likely play(s) a critical role in the observational learning where organisms imitate the actions of others.

The frontal lobe
Mirror neurons
The amygdala
Pyramidal cells

Mirror neurons
What approach dominated the field of psychology from the 1930s to the 1950s?

structural psychology
behavioral psychology
cognitive psychology
evolutionary psychology

behavioral psychology
Little Albert developed a fear of a _____ because it was paired with a _____ .

Santa Claus mask; electric shock.
loud noise; rabbit
dog; white rat
white rat; loud noise

white rat; loud noise
Neuroimaging studies have found evidence that implicit and explicit learning engages:

the same brain structures in the same way.
the same brain structures in different ways.
distinct brain structures in the same way.
distinct brain structures in different ways.

distinct brain structures in different ways.
When a conditioned stimulus is presented without the unconditioned stimulus, _____ will gradually occur.

spontaneous recovery
generalization
extinction
discrimination

extinction
Tolman suggested that rats in a maze don't simply produce behaviors without using any previous spatial information. Instead they develop a _____ of the maze, which argues for a cognitive component to operant learning.

cognitive map
latent cognition
latent response
generalization

cognitive map
Which person would be part of a diffusion chain?

Tony, learning to write poetry by reading Shakespeare
Delilah, who teaches her younger sister to speak French
Serafina, learning to build barns by reading blueprints
Nico, learning to train dogs by renting a video

Delilah, who teaches her younger sister to speak French
The school of psychology MOST associated with learning processes is:

structuralism.
functionalism.
behaviorism.
cognitive psychology.

behaviorism.
Joni's best friend frequently speaks Spanish around her. Joni barely knew Spanish before she met her best friend and one day realizes that she has just followed a short and simple exchange between her best friend and their waiter. Joni's ability to pick up some rudimentary Spanish without trying to do so is a good example of:

implicit learning.
modeling.
shadowing.
spontaneous recovery.

implicit learning.
Little Albert's fear response to a white rabbit, fur coat, and Santa Claus mask are all examples of:

stimulus discrimination.
stimulus generalization.
stimulus specificity.
operant conditioning.

stimulus generalization.
If you watch someone to learn how to play the violin and then serve as a model for another student, you are part of a:

case study.
schedule of reinforcement.
diffusion chain.
meme.

diffusion chain.
Essential to the process of learning is that it is based on:

memory.
experience.
consciousness.
emotion.

experience.
Which is an example of negative reinforcement?

a hug
turning off loud music
money
food

turning off loud music
Individual differences are more commonly found in _____ tasks than _____ ones.

classical conditioning; operant learning
explicit; implicit
semantic; episodic
implicit; explicit

explicit; implicit
Disruption of the motor cortex during a demonstration of motor skills:

had no effect on subsequent performance of that skill in the future.
enhanced performance of that skill in the future.
inhibited performance of that skill in the future.
caused different reactions in different participants.

inhibited performance of that skill in the future.
The _____ is the primary brain structure responsible for conditioning based on fearful or anxiety inducing stimuli.

hippocampus
frontal lobe
amygdala
sensory cortex

amygdala
Which action demonstrates that learning has occurred?

pulling your hand back from a hot pan
blinking when something goes into your eye
a slight kick when a physician strikes your knee with a hammer
saying "C" when asked to name the third letter of the alphabet

saying "C" when asked to name the third letter of the alphabet
Which schedule offers reinforcement based on the amount of time that has passed since the last reinforcement was received?

fixed ratio
fixed interval
variable ratio
continuous

fixed interval
Classical conditioning occurs by pairing a(n) _____ with a(n) _____ to produce a response.

conditioned stimulus; conditioned stimulus
unconditioned response; unconditioned stimulus
neutral stimulus; unconditioned stimulus
conditioned response; unconditioned response

neutral stimulus; unconditioned stimulus
Cultural traditions and customs are generally passed down through:

observational learning.
operant conditioning.
positive reinforcement.
classical conditioning.

observational learning.
In the Brelands' research, pigs would not drop coins into a box, and, instead, pushed them along the ground with their snout, despite programmed reinforcement. This was evidence of:

stimulus control.
reinforcement.
context effects.
biological predisposition.

biological predisposition.
Checking your mailbox is generally reinforced on a _____ schedule, since the mail only comes once per day at about the same time.

fixed interval
variable interval
fixed ratio
variable ratio

fixed interval
Younger children may learn some things at a younger age than did their older siblings because of :

implicit learning.
cultural learning.
operant conditioning.
observational learning.

observational learning.
Learning typically involves:

a temporary and short change in behavior.
no change in the state of the learner.
a punishment for undesirable behavior.
a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner.

a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner.
Due to the powerful effects of _____ , many parents monitor the content of their children's video games, television shows, and movies so that they will not imitate violent behavior.

classical conditioning
operant conditioning
observational learning
implicit learning

observational learning
Patients with amnesia show deficits in _____ but not in _____ .

short-term memory; long-term memory
explicit memory; implicit memory
procedural memory; semantic memory
sensory memory; working memory

explicit memory; implicit memory
Advertisers often pair pictures of attractive people with their products with the expectation that consumers will respond positively to the product. This reaction comes from a reflexive response that is based on:

our sex drive.
our unconscious mind.
operant conditioning.
classical conditioning.

classical conditioning.
In Pavlov's famous studies, the _____ was the conditioned stimulus, and the _____ was the conditioned response.

food; blinking
food; salivation
sound; blinking
sound; salivation

sound; salivation
Unconditioned stimuli _____ require learning to produce the _____ response.

always; conditioned
always; unconditioned
never; conditioned
never; unconditioned

never; unconditioned
Thorndike's law of effect states that behaviors leading to pleasant situations will be _____ , and behaviors that result in unpleasant situations will be _____ .

repeated; repeated
avoided; avoided
avoided; repeated
repeated; avoided

repeated; avoided
Benjamin used to startle every time the family dog would bark. Now he continues whatever he is doing and appears to not even notice the dog's bark. Benjamin has probably:

developed a phobia of the dog.
been rewarded for not reacting to the dog.
become habituated to the dog's bark.
suffered brain damage to the nucleus accumbens.

become habituated to the dog's bark.
Janet is trying to teach her 3-year-old son how to dress himself. First she has him put on his pants by himself, and she gives him some M & Ms. The next day she has him put on his pants and his shirt, and she gives him some M & Ms. By the end of the week, her son is dressing himself completely. Janet made use of:

implicit learning.
shaping.
latent learning.
habituation.

shaping.
Which action would be acquired through observational learning?

putting on a shirt
sneezing when you inhale dust
vomiting after eating spoiled food
blinking when something flies into your eye

putting on a shirt
An experimenter tells you that you will view a series of pictures and later be asked to categorize these pictures into groups. What region of your brain is LESS likely to be active than another participant who was NOT told in advance about the grouping task?

the hippocampus
parietal cortex
prefrontal cortex
the medulla

the medulla
One characteristic of implicitly learned information is that:

it is easily forgotten.
it rarely occurs in children.
it is difficult to explain to others.
it takes great effort to learn.

it is difficult to explain to others.
Sydney always hated having her diaper changed but she loved cake. So, Sydney's mom decided to use classical conditioning to make diaper changes less miserable. Every time she changed Sydney's diaper, she would play the same song on a CD and give Sydney a small bite of cake while she changed her diaper. Now, as soon as Sydney hears the song, she is happy to have her diaper changed. What is the conditioned stimulus in this case?

the cake
the song
the happy baby
the diaper

the song
The Rescorla-Wagner model showed that classical conditioning actually involved a cognitive aspect based on the organism's:

expectations.
generalizations.
discriminations.
unconscious desires.

expectations.
Jane drinks alcohol because it reduces her anxiety. Jane's drinking is being maintained by:

positive reinforcement.
negative reinforcement.
positive punishment.
negative punishment.

negative reinforcement.
Skinner expanded on the work of Thorndike by focusing on:

reinforcement.
punishment.
both reinforcement and punishment.
the law of effect

both reinforcement and punishment.
The idea of _____ suggests that conditioning has an evolutionary perspective, in that certain associations will be more easily learned if they help the organism's survival.

biological preparedness
natural selection
observational learning
implicit learning

biological preparedness
Angie's angry boss wears a particular type of cologne. One day, Angie is at the mall when she smells the same cologne. The smell produced a momentary feeling of uneasiness in Angie. In this example, what is the unconditioned stimulus?

the cologne
the boss
Angie
feelings of uneasiness

the boss
Rachel is training her dog, Duke, to bark when there is a knock on the door. She already knows that squeaking a mouse toy will make Duke bark. So, she decides to squeak the mouse and knock on the door at the same time to condition Duke to bark. What is the unconditioned stimulus in this case?

the squeaking mouse
the knock on the door
Duke's bark
Rachel

the squeaking mouse
Bandura's famous Bobo doll experiment showed how children can learn _____ through observation.

sharing
aggression
language
motor skills

aggression
People stand up and cheer at a basketball game, but not in the library, because of:

reinforcement.
generalization.
respondent conditioning.
stimulus control.

stimulus control.
In Ken's experiment, a monkey must push a lever to get a reward. If the monkey is successful, it gets a piece of banana every 2 minutes. What type of reinforcement schedule is this?

fixed interval
variable interval
fixed ratio
variable ratio

fixed interval bitch
_____ schedules of reinforcement typically produce the highest and most consistent rates of responding.

Interval
Ratio
Random
Continuous

Ratio
Any consequence that increases the likelihood of a behavior is a _____ and any consequence that decreases the likelihood of a behavior is a _____ .

punisher; reinforcer
positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer
reinforcer; punisher
positive punisher; negative punisher

reinforcer; punisher
Implicit learning is _____ dependent on IQ and changes _____ across the lifespan.

very; little
very; a lot
not; little
not; a lot

not; little
How could extinction be used to eliminate Little Albert's fear of a white rat?

repeatedly expose Little Albert to the loud noise in the absence of the rat
give Albert candy when he sees the rat
punish Albert when he cries and crawls away from the rat
repeatedly present the rat without the loud noise

repeatedly present the rat without the loud noise
Mirror neurons contribute to observational learning through the influence of rote imitation and the influence of the awareness of:

intentionality.
images.
attractiveness.
danger.

intentionality.
Pavlov's dogs were conditioned to salivate to a 1000-hz tone due to its pairing with food. After this training, it was found that the dogs would salivate to a 900-hz tone but not to a 500-hz tone. Salivating to the 900-hz tone is an example of _____, and not salivating to a 500-hz tone is an example of _____ .

a conditioned response; generalization
discrimination; extinction
generalization; discrimination
a conditioned response; negative punishment

generalization; discrimination
A teacher originally wanted to increase class participation, and so she positively reinforced the asking of questions with nickels. After a few days, students had stacks of nickels on their desks, and the class was asking far too many questions. The teacher decided things were better off when the students didn't ask so many questions. To reduce question-asking, the teacher has several options available to her. She could approach the students' desks and physically remove a nickel from their stacks whenever they ask a question, a process known as _____ . Or, she could simply not give students nickels anymore when they ask questions, a process known as _____ .

extinction; negative punishment
negative punishment; extinction
positive punishment; negative punishment
extinction; positive punishment

negative punishment; extinction
Due to _____ , a person can tell the difference between the men's restroom and the women's restroom, and know which one to use.

unconditioned responses
extinction
stimulus control
generalization

stimulus control
The initial pairing of a CS and US in classical conditioning represents the _____ phase of learning.

confirmation
conscious
extinction
acquisition

acquisition
Which is a pleasure center in the brain?

the medulla
the nucleus accumbens
the basal ganglia
the pineal gland

the nucleus accumbens
According to the Rescorla-Wagner model, conditioning should be most powerful when stimuli are:

familiar.
unexpected.
unfamiliar.
expected.

unfamiliar.
_____ proposed that the cognitive process of expectation occurred between a conditioned stimulus and a conditioned response.

Pavlov
Rescorla and Wagner
Watson and Raynor
Garcia

Rescorla and Wagner
Which behavior is LEAST likely to be studied by researchers using operant techniques?

exercising
button pressing
eye blinks
lever pressing

eye blinks
Although it is not known if you have to buy 1, 10, or 100 scratch-off lottery tickets to get a winner, it is highly probable that if you just keep buying, eventually you will get a winner. In fact, maybe the very next ticket you buy will be a winner. Buying scratch-off lottery tickets is reinforced according to a _____ schedule.

fixed ratio
variable ratio
fixed interval
variable interval

variable ratio
Positive punishers _____ behavior, and negative punishers _____ behavior.

strengthen; strengthen
strengthen; weaken
weaken; weaken
weaken; strengthen

weaken; weaken
Classical conditioning is based on _____ responses, and operant conditioning produces _____ behaviors.

voluntary; involuntary
involuntary; voluntary
involuntary; involuntary
voluntary; voluntary

involuntary; voluntary
In Pavlov's famous studies, the _____ was the unconditioned stimulus, and the _____ was the unconditioned response.

food; blinking
food; salivation
sound; blinking
sound; salivation

food; salivation
In studies done on trustworthiness, when participants were told that their partner was trustworthy, they:

closely followed the additional feedback they received about their partner.
ignored the additional feedback they received, acting as if the partner was trustworthy.
ignored the additional feedback they received, acting as if the partner was untrustworthy
treated the trustworthy partner the same way as the neutral partner.

ignored the additional feedback they received, acting as if the partner was trustworthy.
Since they generally result in high, consistent rates of responding without pausing, slot machines use _____ schedules of reinforcement.

fixed ratio
fixed interval
variable ratio
variable interval

variable ratio
Money gains its power to control behavior through:

extinction.
acquisition.
discrimination.
second-order conditioning.

second-order conditioning.
The idea that you can learn how to dance by watching others:

has not been supported by research.
has received some research support.
proves the independence of motor cortex activity.
has been found in non-human animals.

has received some research support.
You are able to correctly follow rules of grammar or identify culturally important people yet you are NOT explicitly aware of your memory for these things because of:

classical conditioning.
operant learning.
implicit learning.
episodic memory.

implicit learning.
Learned food aversions are generally acquired from _____ due to the evolutionary adaptive conditioning of rejecting foods that may be toxic.

novel foods
familiar foods
both novel and familiar foods
foods with strong odors

novel foods