In chapter 3, researchers describe the methodology used and demographic factors to collect the data. In chapter 4, researchers show the collection of data. In chapter 5, the data has been analyzed after data has analyzed researchers show them in tables and graphs. In chapter 6, researchers gave conclusion recommendation and limitations of this research study. CHAPTER # 1 Introduction: Introduction to Tourism: Tourism is the act of travel for predominantly recreational or leisure purposes, and also refers to the provision of services in support of this act.
According to the World Tourism Organization, tourists are people who "travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment. Introduction to Information technology: Transfer of information through technology is called information technology. (let) is the application of computers and telecommunications equipment to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data, (IT) can improve the productivity of Travel and Tourism operations Travel technology includes many processes such as dynamic packaging which provide useful new options for consumers.
Today the tour guide can be a GAPS tour guide, and the Guide Book could be an Audio Guide, Pod guide or '-Tours, such s City audio guide. The Biometric passport may also be included as travel technology in the broad sense. Aims and Objectives: Our aim is to make tourism more comfortable for tourists. We are introducing dynamic packaging soon in Pakistan. We are going to promote tourism industry in Pakistan. Our government made an organization regarding to this industry recently, this will help tourism industry to grow. Our objective is to make this industry more reliable and profitable.
CHAPTER # 2 Research Background: Travel and Tourism Operation Explain: Early travel was essentially to seek food and water. Travel was also held for trade. Later on Romans shape the modern travel. Tourism is one of the world's fastest growing industries. Tourism provides many benefits and helps to generate community support and involvement. It also creates opportunities for employment in the service sector of the economy, associated with tourism. The word tourism is derived from the French word 'Tourism', means to tour and travel.
Tourism is basically traveling to another destination for the purpose of leisure or business. According to "World Travel and Tourism Organization" tourists are people who travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment. Tourism is a service-based industry combination of tangible and intangible components. The tangible elements include transport, foods and beverages and tours while the intangible elements involve adventure, costumers, education, culture and relaxation. Tourism is of many types: Medical tourism Business tourism Education Tourism etc.
There are many beautiful spots in Pakistan. There are hill stations and many historical buildings. In Pakistan there is everything a tourist dream of such as old mountains, historical places and spots of unique beauty. Other facilities and services are also provided to tourists such as hotels, transportation, guidance and information. N Pakistan tourism goes to its peak in sass when the country received unprecedented amounts of foreign tourists. The main destinations of these tourists were the Cyber Pass, Appeaser, Karachi, Lahore, Swat and Rawlins.
The government of Pakistan has made an organization to give facility to the tourists called PPTP Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation; this corporation is providing tourist information, facilitation and publications to tourists through 18 tourist information centers within the country located in Lahore, Appeaser, Islamabad, Equate and many other cities. The main objective of PPTP is to build information enters for tourists to attract international and domestic tourists, to produce publicity and promotional material, to develop interest of community in travel and tourism.
Tourism and its development in Pakistan has many advantages, first Pakistan is a developing country and needs foreign exchange for planning and developing projects. Promotion of tourism can help in this matter. Secondly tourism expands the hotel industry in the country, due to which many people will get employment and our country will increase national incomes. Lastly tourists are the non-official ambassadors of a country. They help to bring two or more countries together. The development of tourism means the development of good relation between two or more countries.
The tourism industry has brought the entire world closer, now it has become a global village. History: Since the very beginning people have been traveling all over the world. Men like Columbus, Marcello, bin-e-bathtub and Sadie are well known for their wander thirst. Some went to the world in search of knowledge some for pleasure, with the passage of time traveling was transformed into tourism and now tourism has developed into an industry. Thomas cook was the founder and father of tourism. He travel 22 km with 70 members in a train in 1841.
He organized first inclusive tour to Paris in 1855. In Pakistan tourism was started when the Pakistan came in existence dated 14th august 1947. Thanks to its diverse cultures, beautiful landscape, and interesting attractions, Pakistan draws more people than ever. In 2007, the Prime Minister launched the Insist Pakistan" marketing campaign to promote the country unique cultural heritage. In 2009, The World Economic Forum's Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report ranked Pakistan as one of the top 25% tourist destinations for its World Heritage Sites.
The most visited places in Pakistan are Immure Gilt valley Swat valley Kashmir Microfarad Nellie valley And many other places like Enjoy-dark are visited by the tourists during 1980 to 2007. In 1966, 77842 tourists visited our country and our country earned 11 lack rupees as foreign exchange. These numbers has increased much more now. Annual tourist arrivals averaged 442,136 for the period 1985-89 but fell to 284,779 in 1990 because of uncertainties generated from the Persian Gulf War. The number of tourist arrivals rose to 41 5,529 in 1991.
Pakistan earned 16 billion rupees (approximately $200 million US) from 800,000 visitors in 2007. Less than 400,000 tourists came in 2008, bringing in only 8 billion rupees. Factorization: There are some factors that influence the travel and tourism operation. These are as follow Unfavorable Political Conditions: Pakistan has been one of the favorite places for tourists but now the situation has been completely changed. The reason is its unfavorable political conditions. People think that it is an unsafe place after the assassination of popular political figures like Binary Bouts and Salaam Taster.
Changing Weather: Global warming and pollution has caused to change the climate and weather conditions of Pakistan. The northern areas and snowy mountains have started losing their beauty. So tourists are now attracted towards places having good weather and proper tourism facilities. Lack of Proper Infrastructure: Infrastructure in Pakistan is a great cause of the failure of profitable tourism industry. There are no proper roads, railway tracks and other transportation services. So tourists find it difficult to visit different places in Pakistan.
Terrorism: Pakistan has become an unsafe place due to ever-increasing terrorist attacks. This is another major factor that is not only damaging the repute of Pakistan in the world UT also causing its tourism industry to decline. Terrorism affects tourism as people are not coming from the rest of the world. Some more factors are also present which are as follow: Natural disasters Cost of travel and the recessions Warning Health Information Technology: Transfer of information through technology is stands for "Information Technology," and is pronounced "I.
T. " It refers to anything related to computing technology, such as networking, hardware, software, the Internet, or the people that work with these technologies. Many companies now have IT departments for managing the amputees, networks, and other technical areas of their businesses. Since we live in the "Technology age," information technology has become a part of our everyday lives. Technology is become an important part of our lives, as we see around us, we are actually surrounded with technology.
For example, we use telephone to contact with our love ones, we use fax machines to send hard copy from one place to other place, now-a-day's digital watches are available with different functions, invention of internet has its own place in the world of technology and computer technology is a big example of information technology. There are four generations of computer technology. The first was the era of vacuum tubes and punch cards like the MENACE (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer). Rotating magnetic drums were used for internal storage.
The second generation replaced vacuum tubes with transistors, punch cards were replaced with magnetic tape, and rotating magnetic drums were replaced by magnetic cores for internal storage. The third generation replaced transistors with integrated circuits, magnetic tape was used throughout all computers, and magnetic core turned into metal oxide semiconductors. The fourth and latest generation brought in Cups (central processing units) control circuits all on a single chip. The personal computer was developed (Apple II). The graphical user interface (GU') was developed.
There are some variables of information technology that help tourism in a better way, those are dynamic packages, virtual tourism, tour guide and many more applications are available. IT has revolutionized the travel and tourism industry. The tourism industry have widely adopted information technology to reduce costs and enhance the operation efficiency and most important to improve revive quality and customer experience. Most of the hotels and restaurant use technology to enhance their operation. Information technology gives positive impact on travel and tourism operation.
If we talk about the history of information technology then a giant calculator is the first invention. The first use of computerized accounting system was in 1954. With the time new technologies were introduced. For example, the revolution in information technology was the invention of the computer. During the period of 1954-1960 there are very few people who know to operate the computer. Information technology is too old because primitive people also communicate with each other through technology. There are 4 main ages that divide up the history of information technology: 1)Pre- Mechanical 2)Mechanical 3)Electromechanical 4)Electronic 1.
Pre-Mechanical: This is the earliest stage of IT. This era Begins from 3000 B. C and ends at 1450 A. D. People communicate with each 10th 2. Ere by simply drawing/carving in the rocks. Then advancement came and people started writing in wet clay. Also during this period the first numbering system were introduced. Around 100 A. D the first 1-9 system was created by people of India. And yes now that numbers were reared, people wanted stuff to do with them so they created calculators. 2) Mechanical: The mechanical age can be defined as the time between 1450 and 1840.
A lot of new technologies are developed in this era. Technologies like the slide rule (an analog computer used for multiplying and dividing) were invented. Blaine Pascal invented the Baseline which was a very popular mechanical computer. Charles Babbage developed the difference engines. If you look at the size of the machines invented in this time compared to the power behind them it absolutely confuse to understand why anybody would want to use them, but to those people vying in that time all of the inventions were huge. 3) Electromechanical: This era is defined as the age between 1840-1940.
These were the beginnings of the telecommunication age. Telegraph was intentioned in the early sass and the telephone was created by Graham Bell in 1876. The first radio developed by Marion in 1894. The first computer was created by the students of Harvard University around 1940. This computer was Ft high,fit long, Ft wide, and weighed 5 tons. 4) Electronic: This is the time period from 1940 to onwards. First High speed computer-digital "MENACE" was also created in this period. This computer was designed to be used by the U. S. Army. This is the Fourth Generations of computer technology.
Time by time new generation replaced its big instruments to small instruments. Different computer languages were also created like BASIC, COBOL & PASCAL etc. The last (fourth) generation developed a CPU (Central Processing Unit). There are different factors that facilitate and effect information technology. These are as follow: Human factor: Individuals plays an important role in technology adoption process. A technology is not successful if its user does not accept it. Lack of user acceptance is one of the important factors in the success of new technology.
Social factor: Society is the one of the great barrier in the adoption of any technology. We live in the age of great technology changes are held, and then it is the basic need of society to accept the technology and adopt it. Organizational structure factor: An organization's structure is considered an important factor in technology adoption. An appropriate structure is necessary for adoption of technology. More over the interaction and cooperation among members of an organization is also necessary for success of any new technology. Governmental factor: The role of government in the implementation of a technology is very important.
Government policies about taxes, other rules and regulation with regards to a particular technology play an important role in adoption and rejection of any technology. Economic factor: The economic issue also has a great effect on the use of a technology. In middle income countries like Pakistan, the funds are not sufficient to buy expensive technology. These countries mostly rely on the donation of technologies. The factors that may facilitate or effect the adoption of new technology are needed to be scanned before the implementing any new technology.
IT highly influenced by a complex and dynamic interaction of these social, political, economic and organizational factors. There are some applications of information technology Internet Tour guide Virtual Tourism Dynamic Packages Hypothesis: Online booking facilitates the tourists for reservation. Dynamic Packages allow tourists to develop their own Journey plan. H-3 Internet plays an important role in promoting tourists places. H-4 Virtual tourism helps tourists to gain information about the place in form of videos or audios. H-5 Tour guide provide tourists to visit various places without any physical guide help.