Rome was a crucial factor in the development of European civilization because
Rome connected Europe to the cultural heritage of the Near East
Vigil's Aeneid built on Homer's epic literature by
connecting Roman history to the heroic narrative of the Trojan War
In terms of geography and natural resources, the Italian peninsula
was more fertile than ancient Greece.
Prior to the establishment of Rome as dominant state in Italy,
Etruscans, skilled metal workers, and artists, lived there.
One way that Romans were influenced by the Greeks was by
observing the many Greeks who lived in Sicily and Southern Italy
The geographic site of Rome has many advantages, including
-Trading ships could navigate the river as far as the city -Its position across the Tiber made it a good crossroads -Strategic advantages to the seven hills that ringed it
"The Latin Right" of the early Romans guaranteed that
Neighbors would have trading rights (known as commercium), intermarriage rights (known as connubium), and full citizenship after a year of residence, following emigration (known as migratis)
Which legend explains the end of the Roman monarchy and the founding of the Republic?
The Rape of Lucretia
During the early Roman Republic, Rome
expanded slowly and extended the Latin Right to many of the cities it conquered.
The division between Roman patricians and plebeians was
between the wealthiest and the rest of the people
After the plebeian rebellion in the early fifth century B.C.E.
the patricians accepted the elected tribunes and written laws
The Twelve Tables of Law, approved in 450 B.C.E., represent
the codification of existing laws for all to see and obey
To limit the influence of wealth in Roman politics, new laws were passed
-Stoicism, decisions of judges, and the edicts of magistrates called praetors.
The equestrian order (Roman Knights) was established when
businessmen who did not become senators wanted privileges
In the early Roman Republic, Rome was technically a democracy but
the Roman constitution essentially ensured oligarchic rule
One important difference between Roman religion and Greek religion was the Roman interest in
household gods
Traditional Roman religion included ancestor worship and
Oligarchs who played dual roles as priests and politicians
The greatest honor a Roman could hope to achieve was
to sacrifice himself, his family and his friends for the state
Once the Romans had effectively gained control of Italy (265 B.C.E.)
they started a series of wars to gain control over the Mediterranean
Why did the Romans regard Carthage as a threat?
The Carthaginian Empire in Sicily and Spain was encroaching on Rome
During the Second Punic War, the Carthaginian general Hannibal
brought his entire army, including elephants, over the alps
After Rome had twice defeated Carthage, a Third Punic War
marked the breaching of the wall of Carthage, where all the citizens were butchered and the survivors were sold into slavery.
Since the Romans employed slaves for all forms of manual labor
no industrial revolution took place and urban underemployment was common
Changes in the Roman law of marriage in the second century B.C.E. meant that
Women had more rights in the marriage, such as property control, and innovate divorce proceedings.
In "On the Nature of things," Lucretius argued that
humans must separate mind from matter and accept that all things must pass
The greatest Roman Stoic, Cicero, believed that
virtue leads to happiness and peace of mind in the highest goal
Social tensions in the late Roman Republic were made worse by the
Third Punic War
When Julius Caesar adopted Octavian as his heir
Octavian had to fight his rivals and kill his republican opponents.
The Augustan system of government
is known as the early empire or Participant, because Octavian ruled as first citizen
Those who ruled Rome from 96 to 180 C.E. were called the "Five Good Emperors" because:
they were capable administrators who governed successfully.
Pax Romana refers to the
Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius were all
Roman law consisted of three branches
Civil law, natural law, and law of the people
The Romans were a military society almost from the moment they settled in Italy because
they were continually forced to defend their own conquests against invaders.
Historians now refer to the period from 284 to 610 C.E. as Late Antiquity because
It is a period of its own themes and developments, neither wholly Roman and not yet medieval.
The "fall" of the Roman Empire in the fifth century A.D. has been much exaggerated because
many Roman institutions continued to function
Which sentence best describers the historical concept of "late antiquity" introduced in Chapter 6?
The continuing influence of Greek, Roman, and Near Eastern Cultural motifs in Europe.
New cultural influences in late antiquity included:
splitting Empires into two halves.
When high culture is "watered down" for a wider public, the process is called:
Realizing that the Roman Empire had become too large for a single ruler to control it
Diocletian divided the empire in half, trusting a junior colleague to rule the western part
Economic reforms introduced by the early fourth century Roman Empire included
wage and price controls fixed by government
As a ruler, Diocletian was known for:
embracing the reality of Rome as a multicultural entity that could not be governed from one place by one person with one centralized bureaucracy
The realism and vividness of Roman portrait sculpture before before Diocletian
meant that figures often looked alike, even though they were unrelated
The differences between the eastern and western parts of the Roman Empire
In culture, economy, and language were great, and grew larger over time
The Dead Sea Scrolls have helped historians to understand the religious climate of the first century C.E. by
demonstrating the diversity of JEwish religious practice and belief
According to Chapter 6, it is probably best to assume that
Jesus was a historical figure described by numerous first century sources
The gospel accounts of Jesus' life:
Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John
Which statement best describes the position of the Sadducees in Palestine during the first century C.E.?
Sadducees believed that religious law pertained primarily to the temple of priesthood
Which statement best describes the position of the Pharisees in Palestine during the first century C.E.?
Pharisees believed in life after death and a system of indicidual rewards and punishments
Jesus is the central figure in Christianity, but Paul was important
because he was the founder of the universal church, giving it theology and organization
Once Constantine I and his successors had converted to Christianity
it gained power and was designated the only official religion by Theodosius
What point was in dispute between the Arians and the Euthanasias?
Whether Jesus was of the same being and substance as God the Father
What were the general results of the doctrinal quarrels of the early centuries?
The dogmas of the Christian Church slowly became fixed
In terms of organization, the fourth-century Christian church was
more defined in hierarchical terms, with clergy disputed among patriarchs, bishops, priests, and deacons.
The roots of the papacy lie in
A passage from the New Testament Gospel of Matthew
St. Benedict's monastic rule differed from St. Basil's rule
because it was less austere and more moderate in its demands for monastic life
During late antiquity, attitudes toward women changed in Roman society because
Christians asserted that their bodies belonged not to the state but to God.
Romans regarded the Germans as barbarians because
German society was illiterate, and Germans did not live in cities
Jerome's most lasting contribution to western Christian culture was
his translation of the bible into Latin
Why did Justinian try to reconquer the western Roman Empire?
because he sought to revive and reconstruct the empire of Augustus
Why did Justinian's reconquest of the western Roman Empire fail?
The costs associated with conquering and defending the vast western empire was too great
The traditional date for the fall of Rome is:
476 B.C.E.
The seventh century C.E. was a turning point in the history of western civilizations because
the Greco-Roman world of antiquity divided into Byzantine, Islamic and Latin Christian realms.
It is difficult to date the beginning of Byzantine history with precision because
the Byzantine empire was the uninterrupted successor of the Roman Empire
Between 610 and 1071, the major security threats to the Byzantine Empire came from
Persia, then the Umyyad and the Abbasids
The stability of the Byzantine government was the product of
-Highly centralized government -Predictable system of succession to the imperial throne -Efficient bureaucracy
Early Byzantine religion was known for its
intense interest in matters of doctrine and orthodoxy
When Diocletian took power:
he followed Augustus' image of princeps rather than domus to alleviate fears of his imperial ambition and worked along side the senate and military to at least give the illusion of a republican government.
The Iconoclastic Controversy of the eighty century C.E. was about the
use or prohibition of images in church, where people might worship the objects
Although the Iconoclastic Controversy was eventually resolved, its lasting effects included
the destruction of nearly all pre-eighth-century religious art in the Byzantine empire
In Byzantine schools, classical Greek literature was
the basis of the curriculum, with much study of the epics of Homer
Women from wealthy Byzantine families
were educated at home by tutors, and some became literary figures of notes
Which was the most significant event in creating Byzantine hostility toward the Latin Christian world?
the Coronation of the Charlemagne as Roman emperor on Christmas Day, 800
The Byzantine church of Santa Sophia was influential in the history of architecture because it
placed a massive dome on a building with a square shape
In the late sixth century C.E., the economy of Arabia
became much more commercially sophisticated as a result of changing trade routes
The Hijrah (Hegira) refers to the prophet Muhammad's move from
Mecca to Medina
The word Islam means
In their worship of Allah, Muslims worship
The Qur'an contains
revelations sent by God to Muhammad
Islam spread so quickly in the seventh and eighth centuries because
the Byzantines and Persians had become exhausted by their long wars against each other
The Shiite party arose among Muslims became
of a dispute about the proper succession of caliphs in 7th century Arabia
The Arabian Nights describes the extravagant behavior of the Abbasid caliph
Heron al-Rushed
Charlemagne and Harun al-Rashid formed an alliance partially because of their shared enemy, the
The economic base of the Abbisid caliphate lay in
Tigris-Euphrates basin of Mesopotamia
The overall unity of the Muslim world disintegrated during the tenth and eleventh centuries because of
ethnic tensions among Arabs, Turks, Berbers, and Persians
Muslim art is most strikingly different from the Byzantine, Persian, and Hellenistic models upon which it drew
because Muslim art did not portray the human body
Compared to medieval Europe in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, the Islamic world was
more advanced in technological sophistication, science, and philosophy
The gradual conversion of the early medieval European countryside to Christianity was carried out primarily by
Lay Missionaries commissioned by the Pope
Why were so many convents (monastic houses for women) founded during the seventh century C.E.?
Convents met a variety of social and spritual needs for aristocratic families
The key figure in creating an alliance between the Carolingian family, the papacy, and Benedictine monasticism was
St. Boniface
As a Christian King responsible for ruling a Christian society, Charlemagne
took responsibility for reforming the religious life of his kingdom just as he reformed tits goverment
Underlying the Carolingian renaissance was the basic conviction that
classical learning was the foundation on which Christian wisdom rested.
Why did the Carolingian empire collapse during the ninth century?
-Because of the structural limits of its expansion had been reached -Because of Viking raids -Because of the division of the empire among all legitimate heirs of Louis