Louise Nevelson's work White Vertical Water is a realistic depiction of fish in a river.
Leonardo da Vinci was an artist who rigidly stuck to traditional methods and rules of art.
The pose, facial expression, and landscape background of Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa communicate to the viewer a mood of ____.
Calm and Introspection
The rarity of an artwork, and its value, are often closely related.
The Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. is valuable because ________.
Lincoln is a symbol of American values and identity.
Girl with a Pearl Earring was painted by this Dutch artist.
Johannes Vermeer
The elements of art form the basic ________ of art.
The principles of design are a kind of ________ that artists apply to the elements of art.
A flat work of art has two dimensions: ________ and width.
The dark printed words on the page of a book are easily read because they are printed on a light ground. This is an example of the principle of ________.
One definition of this element is "a mark that connects two points."
The line that defines the edge of a shape is called the ________.
The lines that create the image of the Nazca Spider "drawing" define the ________ of a ________.
Boundary, shape
Three words that can describe irregular line are:
Loose, wild, chaotic
A line that is a continuous mark is ________.
An actual line
Pick the three words that would best describe a regular line.
Controlled, geometric, cool-headed
A line that gives viewers the impression that they are seeing a line where there is not a continuous mark is ________.
An implied line
By orienting lines so that they attract attention to a specific area of a work of art the artist is using ________.
Directional line
A contour line defines the outer edge or profile of an object, and can be used to suggest a volume in space.
If vertical lines communicate strength, horizontals calm, and diagonals action, then a vacation resort might want to choose a logo consisting of ________ lines in order to show peaceful repose.
A shape made of perfectly straight lines would probably be classified as ________ shape.
A geometric
This type of shape is composed of unpredictable, irregular lines.
A shape on a flat picture surface that is defined by surrounding empty space is known as ________ shape.
A positive
An empty space defined by its surround is known as ________ shape.
A negative
In a two-dimensional work, when the figure becomes the background and the background becomes the figure, we perceive ________.
A figure-ground reversal
The positive and negative shapes in M. C. Escher's print Sky and Water I balance each other and are an example of ________.
Figure-ground reversal
A two-dimensional object is called a shape, and a three-dimensional object is known as a ______.
Because it is three-dimensional, a form has these three spatial measurements: height, width, and ________.
These four visual elements of art—form, volume, mass, and texture—are present in ________ works of art.
Forms such as pyramids, which tend to be precise and regular, are known as ________ forms.
The artist David Smith created sculptures of geometric forms. In his work Cubi XIX , Smith used the following geometric shapes:
Forms that tend to be irregular, and similar to naturally occurring objects, are known as ________ forms.
A three-dimensional surface that is designed to be viewed from only one direction is known as a ________.
This type of relief, which takes its name from the French word for low, does not imply great depth.
A sculpture designed in the round can be viewed from ________.
Nearly every angle
The element of art that defines the amount of space occupied by an object is ________.
The visual impact of the Olmec sculpture of a Colossal Head (1.40 ) is directly related to its mass.
This term refers to the substance contained in an object, but it does not necessarily imply weight.
Our experience of objects in the natural world often leads us to assume that a large object will be heavy, but in fact this is not necessarily the case. This element of art is called ________.
Because a form exists in "real" space we can experience it not only visually, but also through the sense of ________.
When we touch an object we experience a tactile sensation that artists refer to as ________ texture.
The lightness or darkness of a surface is the element of art called ________.
Artists can create a sense of ________ by using light and dark values.
Triangular planes make up the surface of a geodesic sphere. Planes that are closer to and facing toward the light source tend to be lighter than planes that are further from it and facing away.
This method of applying value to a two-dimensional artwork in order to create the illusion of threedimensional solid form is called _____.
The process of using a series of parallel lines set close to one another to differentiate planes of value in a work of art is called ________.
Hatching and cross-hatching use two-dimensional lines to communicate ________ depth.
An artist can use color to indicate depth. When a color is very pure and intense then it seems to be ______.
When objects are far away they lack contrast, detail, and sharpness of focus because of the interference of air. Artists take advantage of this when they use the process called:
Atmospheric perspective
This system, which derives its name from the Greek meaning "equal measure," uses diagonal parallel lines to communicate depth.
Isometric perspective
This is the system for creating an illusion of depth using three basic components: horizon line, vanishing point, and convergence lines.
Linear perspective
One-point perspective does convey depth, but it has limited applications due to its reliance on a single ________.
Vanishing point
This is the area that is visible when a viewer is staring at a fixed point in space.
Cone of vision
If you are looking straight ahead, an object that is behind you is in your cone of vision.
When the rules of perspective are applied in order to represent unusual points of view, we call this ________.
If an artist were to draw a figure whose arm was pointing directly toward the viewer, what technique would the artist have to use when drawing the outstretched arm?
This is the most vivid element of art and design.
This object can be used to separate white light into the colors of the spectrum.
Physicists have explained that when we see a color, it is the portion of the light spectrum that a surface fails to _____.
If you were to look at a t-shirt that absorbed the colors violet, blue, green, yellow, and orange, what color would the t-shirt appear to be?
The traditional primary colors are ________.
Red, yellow, blue
When ________ colors are mixed, they make a duller and darker color because more of the visible spectrum is absorbed.
The term used for referring to the basic colors of the spectrum is ________.
The element of art that describes the relative lightness or darkness of a hue, compared to another hue, is known as ______.
A color that is lighter than its basic hue is known as a tint. A color that is darker than its basic hue is called a ________.
An artwork that uses many hues but only one value is called monochromatic.
We generally associate a color with its purest, most intense state, or its highest level of ______.
A color that is almost gray has a ________ saturation.
Colors that are on opposite sides of a color circle are radically different in wavelength and are called ________.
Complementary colors
If you were to design an eye-catching poster using only two colors, the combination that would most stand out to passersby would be ________.
Red and green
Colors that do not contrast strongly with each other, and which are similar in wavelength, are ________ colors.
When a color is associated with hot or cold we refer to this as color ________.
We see this type of color when the brain receives so much color information that it is forced to simplify what we perceive.
Opitcal color
The French artist Georges Seurat employed a new technique to create a jewel-like diffusion of light and vibration of color in his work The Circus . This type of painting, made up of small dots of color, is known as ________.
Most commercial color printing is achieved using four separate colors, represented by the matrix ________.
If you were to choose the color scheme for a health retreat, red would be a good color to pick.
Color affects the way we think and react to the world, and can be used for healing purposes. This practice is called ________.
Traditional visual arts, such as painting, are inherently static, but artists have always found inventive ways of conveying the elements of ________ and ________.
When an artist employs visual clues to suggest movement in a work of art that is static and motionless, this is known as ________.
Implied motion
When an artist creates a work that deceives our eyes into believing there is motion as time passes, this is called ________.
The ilusion of motion
The kind of motion that is created by showing a series of static images in quick succession is called ________.
Stoboscopic motion
This spinning toy gives a sense of motion to a viewer when he or she looks through small slits in its cylindrical drum at a strip of changing pictures.
Disney's Finding Nemo is an example of a series of computer-generated images played in rapid succession. This medium is called ________.
This kind of motion is occurring when we see movement in real life.
Actual motion
This type of art can only exist in one place and time in history.
Performance art
This medium involves the human body and usually includes the artist.
Performance art
Performance artists the Blue Man Group rely on bodily movements to communicate ideas without speech.
This type of sculpture can move and change its visual form.
Alexander Calder invented the ________, a type of suspended, balanced sculpture that uses air currents to power its movement.
If Alexander Calder's Untitled mobile was powered by a small motor, rather than air currents, it would not be an example of actual motion.
The elements of time and motion are not applicable to the art of photography.
What element describes the imposition of order and harmony on a design?
The three kinds of unity are:
Compositional, conceptual, gestalt
Compositional unity strikes an interesting balance between the monotony of too much similarity, and the chaos of too much ________ in a work of art.
What principle of art did Katsushika Hokusai employ in "The Great Wave off Shore at Kanagawa" in order to bring harmony to what could otherwise be a very chaotic scene?
An interior design that uses only straight lines might lack the visual interest of a more varied composition.
Disparate visual elements can be linked together with a common idea. This is ________ unity.
The German word that refers to something in which the whole seems greater than the sum of its parts is ________.
This is a kind of visual diversity that can bring many different ideas, media, or elements together in one composition.
Variety can ________ a design.
An artist creates an artwork made up of many different shapes, all in varying shades of blue. This artwork uses the following principles of art:
Unity and variety
Creating visual weight and counterweight is part of an artist's use of the element of ________ in creating a work of art.
________ balance is achieved when both sides of a composition look exactly the same.
________ balance is achieved when two halves of a composition are not mirror images of each other.
If an artist painted a street scene with one large building on the left-hand side, and two smaller buildings on the right-hand side, this would be an example of ________ balance.
________ balance is achieved when all elements in a work of art are equidistant from a central point and repeat in a symmetrical way from side to side and top to bottom.
The kind of scale used for objects that appear larger than they are in real life is called ___ scale.
An artist might use a small scale for a portrait of a lover because it implies ________.
When an artist uses scale to indicate the relative importance of elements in a composition, he or she is employing this kind of scale.
Hierarchical scale
This type of scale is common in the relief sculpture of ancient Egypt, where it was used to indicate social importance.
This group of artists sometimes used distorted scale to create dreamlike images that subvert our conscious experiences.
An artist would probably use distorted scale if he or she wanted to create a lifelike scene that the viewer could relate to.
The relationships between the sizes of different parts of a work make up its ________.
In two-dimensional art, this is the area in which an artist creates their work.
This proportional system uses a ratio of 1:1.618.
Golden Section
It does not matter if a sculptor is creating a human statue on a monumental scale, or a figure much smaller than lifesize: if the sculptor applies the ratio of the Golden Section, the sculpture will have naturalistic proportions.
Rectangles based on the Golden Section can be nested inside each other to create an elegant ________.
Photographers cannot be responsible for principles of scale or proportion in their photographs.
Any of the ________ of art can help focus our interest on specific areas of a work of art.
The opposite of emphasis is ________.
This is the specific part in an area of emphasis to which the viewer's eye is drawn.
Focal point
If an artist painted a garden with one red flower in a field of yellow flowers, this would be an example of using color to create contrast. For the viewer, the single red flower would be ________.
A focal point in the artwork
An artwork can have only one focal point.
Which two types of line shape our examination of awork of art by directing the movement of our gaze?
The recurrence of a single element in a work of art is called ________.
The area covered by a pattern is called the ________.
A design repeated as a unit in a pattern is called a ________.
This art movement, of which Hans Arp was a member, valued randomness, absurdity, and nonsense over rational or orderly patterns.
There is rhythm in an artwork when it has at least this many points of reference.
A pattern with regular intervals creates ________ rhythm.
A repetitive
The principle of rhythm does not apply to photography.
What is the name for any side of a building that is intended to be looked at?
A facade
In the painting The Third of May, 1808, this Spanish artist used alternating rhythm to contrast "good" and "bad."
Francisco Goya
Artemisia Gentileschi worked during this stylistic and historical period.
Art can only be made by a single individual.
Masses of people came inside the Parthenon to worship the goddess Athena.
The Guggenheim Museum in New York City was designed by:
Frank Lloyd Wright
What function were the terracotta warriors inside Qin Shi Huangdi's tomb intended to serve?
To guard the emperor in the afterlife
A lyre is used for what purpose?
To play music
Navajo sand paintings are made ________.
To heal an individual
Navajo sand paintings are generally made to be passed down from generation to generation.
Diego Rivera was so angry that his mural in Rockefeller Center was destroyed that he never re-created it.
In traditional African cultures, functional objects were often esteemed as status symbols.
What does a chevron look like?
A V shape
Spiritual ideas, such as the traditions of voodoo, can never be represented in functional objects such as furniture.
The Ecstasy of St. Teresa was meant to show Teresa ________.
Being pierced by an angel's arrow, being infusedwith divine love, as a devout Christian, as a role model to be followed by devout Chistians
A shaman is a person who ________.
Acts as an intermediary between the invisible spirit wold and the physical realm of humans
Photographs, such as Andres Serrano's The Morgue (Gun Murder), cannot display the perspective technique of foreshortening.
The Hopi of the southwestern United States are responsible for making which of the following sculptures?
The kachina doll
The Aztec of central Mexico are responsible for making which of the following sculptures?
The vessel with a mask of Tlaloc
Which constellation is the arrangement of the Great Pyramids thought to mimic?
Who is the artist of the painting Woman Holding a Balance?
Johannes Vermeer
Artists have often been influenced by scientific discoveries.
The Maya flint depicting a crocodile canoe with passengers:
Is a representation of the Maya story of creation, shows five figures riding a crocodile, refers to the arrangement of the stars in the Milky Way
Astrolabes were used by Muslims to determine the direction of Mecca.
Astrolabes were treated as purely scientific instruments that did not need decoration or inscriptions.
Surgical dissections and artists studying anatomy have nothing in common.
Willard Wigan carves grains of rice and sand and paints them with an eyelash.
Body Worlds is controversial because the figures in the exhibition never gave permission for their bodies to be used.
Georges Seurat feverishly painted Sunday on La Grande Jatte in one weekend.
Synesthesia is when stimulation of one sense triggers an experience in another, for example visualizing color when one hears music.
Which artist collected artworks, now housed in Switzerland, made by the insane?
Jean Dubuffet
Salvador Dalí's painting Persistence of Memory shows warped clocks, ants, and a distorted face, all of which are symbols of his mother, who died the month before this was painted.
Salvador Dalí was a member of the Surrealists, whose artworks were inspired by dreams or subconscious thoughts.
When the restoration of the Sistine Chapel ceiling was completed in 1989, artists, scholars, and scientists throughout the world universally applauded the restorers' efforts.
Because restorers accidentally removed the original varnish, the Sistine Chapel ceiling looks brighter than it was in Michelangelo's time.
Trompe l'oeil means to fool the eye.
Illusion cannot be created using the medium of fresco.
Ron Mueck's Mask II is a:
Oversized Sculpture
Which artist created a three-dimensional sculpture of his own face?
Ron Mueck
Ancient Greek architects were not aware of how optical illusions could skew the appearance of buildings.
Julian Beever is ________.
A sidewalk chalk artist working today
William Hogarth's False Perspective demonstrates incorrect applications of the laws of perspective.
Magritte questions the idea of the "illusionistic window" in his work The Human Condition.
Maya rituals such as bloodletting were only enacted on slaves.
The fleur-de-lis is a symbol of the French monarchy.
Hierarchical scale is used to show the importance of Narmer in the Palette of Narmer.
An oba is another name for king in parts of Africa.
The colossal statue of Constantine the Great departs completely from statues of earlier Roman emperors.
The portrait of Mao Zedong that hangs over Tiananmen has never been taken down since the day it was first hung.
Timothy O'Sullivan's famous photograph of dead bodies on a deserted battlefield (4.102) was taken during ___.
The American Civil War
Timothy O'Sullivan was a photographer whose images were the result of random snapshots.
A painting can never powerfully capture the horror of war.
Francisco Goya's The Second of May, 1808 depicts:
Spanish civilians attacking French soldiers
The fact that Goya's paintings The Second of May, 1808 and The Third of May, 1808 portray different sides committing acts of violence shows that Goya was condemning war in general.
J. M. W. Turner's painting Slave Ship uses pale colors and smooth brushstrokes to depict the serenity of life at sea.
J. M. W. Turner's painting Slave Ship condemns the slave trade, and the practice of overcrowding ships and throwing slaves overboard.
Picasso was particularly affected by the horrors of an attack on the small Spanish town of Guernica because he was living there at the time.
Critics of the sculpture Falling Woman said that it was irrelevant to the terror attacks of September 11, 2001, and did not capture any of the pain and emotion of that day.
Who destroyed the tallest statue of Buddha in the world?
The Taliban
"Iconoclasm" means the destruction of religious images.
In Jacques-Louis David's painting of him, Jean-Paul Marat is portrayed as:
A martyr
Jean-Paul Marat was a:
French revolutionary
Why were some veterans offended by Maya Lin's design for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C.?
It descended into the earth
What was the solution to the discontent over Maya Lin's Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C.?
A more traditional memorial statue was created and placed nearby it
The Woman from Willendorf is made out of which medium?
Ancient Greek notions of beauty were based upon the combination of an underlying canon of mathematical proportions with the finely honed physiques possessed by male athletes.
Who is the artist of The Birth of Venus?
Sandro Botticelli
Who is the artist of Self-portrait with Bandaged Ear and Pipe?
Vincent van Gogh
Why did Rembrandt make so many self-portraits?
He had access to his subject whenever he wanted it, he coud show himself in many guises and character types, he had the opportunity to examine different facial expressions
The artist ORLAN is known for her ________.
Unconventional performances
The artist ORLAN was the first person ever to undergo plastic surgery.
The powerful heroines in Artemisia Gentileschi's paintings have a strong correlation to events in the artist's own life.
Which artwork did James Abbott McNeill Whistler make?
Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket
Who is the artist of The Scream?
Edvard Munch
Who is the artist of Brillo Box?
Andy Warhol