process by which experience produces lasting change in mental processes or behavior.

Behavioral Learning
stimulus and response
motivated behaviors that have a strong innate basis.
More exposure effect
learned preference for stimuli to which we have been previously exposed.
learning not to respond to repeated presentation of a stimulus.
Classical Conditioning
is a basic form of learning process in which a stimulus that produces an innate reflex becomes associated with a previously neutral stimulus, which then acquires the power to elicit the same response.
Neutral stimulus
any stimulus producing no conditioned response prior to learning
initial stage of classical conditioning, where the conditioned response (CR) becomes elicited by the conditioned stimulus (CS).

Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
elicits an unconditioned response. Example, food creates salivation.
Unconditioned response (UCR)
response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus without prior learning
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
a previously neutral stimulus that comes to elicit the conditioned response
Conditioned response (CR)
the response elicited by a previously neutral stimulus that has become associated with the conditioned stimulus
Unconditioned Stimulus is to Unconditioned Response as Conditioned Stimulus is to _____
Conditioned Response
weakening of a conditioned response in the absence of an unconditioned stimulus. forgetting unimportant associations neurotransmitters block memories
Spontaneous Recovery
unexpected reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response after a time delay.
Stimulus Generalization
the extension of a learned response to stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus.

For example, fearing even small dogs after being bitten by a large dog.

Stimulus Discrimination
learning to respond to a particular stems but not to similar stimuli.
What is punishment?
An aversive consequence that diminishes the strength of the response it follows.
Positive punishment
application (+) of an aversive stimulus after a response.

Negative punishment
removal (-) of an attractive stimulus after a response.
An example of positive punishment?
washing mouth out with soap after saying a bad word.
An example of negative punishment?
Taking away one's phone after being disrespectful.
What are the four kinds of consequences?
Positive reinforcement, Negative reinforcement, Positive punishment, and Negative punishment.
When does punishment work?
when presented without delay, is consistent, limited in duration and intensity, consequence is logical, limited to specific situation at hand, no mixed messages are sent, negative punishment is used
Triggered escape
rebelling, lying about behaviors, avoiding punishment
An example of positive reinforcement?
an employee receives bonus for hard work, and continues to work hard.
In reinforcement, the probability of the behavior _____
Positive Reinforcement:
Apply a positive stimulus
Negative Reinforcement
Remove a negative stimulus
An example of negative reinforcement?
Taking aspirin for a headache, and the headache vanishes.

Thus, you continue taking aspirin every time you get a headache.

In punishment, the probability of the behavior ___
An example of positive punishment?
Someone speeding gets a traffic ticket, so drives more slowly.
An example of negative punishment?
a child stays out late, and misses dinner. They come home early next time.
Fixed ratio in reinforcement schedules:
there are brief pauses after each reinforcer is delivered
Fixed interval in reinforcement schedules:
few responses immediately after each reinforcer is delivered
Variable ratio in reinforcement schedules:
No pauses after each reinforcer is delivered
Variable interval in reinforcement schedules:
Responding occurs at a fairly consistent rate.
How does cognitive psychology explain learning?
some forms of learning must be explained as changes in mental processes, rather than behavior alone
Insight learning -
problem solving occurs by means of sudden reorganization of perception
Cognitive Maps -
mental representation of a physical or mental "space.

" It also supported that learning was mental, not purely behavioral.

Latent Learning -
when learning occurs without reinforcement and without any hint that it took place.
Observational learning -
form of cognitive learning, new responses are acquired after watching other's behavior AND the consequences of their behavior. (Think of the doll, when parents were violent, the kids became violent after watching their parents).

Longterm Potentiation
biological process involving physical changes that strengthen the synapses in groups of nerve cells beloved to be the neural basis of learning
What are the two brain circuitry for different types of learning?
simpler circuits complex learning
Simpler circuits:
classical conditioning and operant learning
Complex learning:
concept formation, insight learning, observational learning
Operant conditioning:
the consequences of behavior such as rewards and punishments, which influence the probability that the behavior will occur again. You can ask - what is the stimulus that is following the response?
Law of Effect
responses that produced desirable results learned or "stamped" into the organism
condition (either presentation or removal of a stimulus) occurring after a response, and strengthening that response.
Skinner's Radical Behaviorism
he believed that the most powerful influences on behavior are the consequences of the behavior. "the power of reinforcement"
Positive reinforcers
stimulus presented after a response, which increases the probability of that response happening again.

Negative reinforcers
removal of an unpleasant stimulus, which increases the probability of that response happening again.
Continuous reinforcement
reinforcement schedule in which all correct responses are reinforced
Intermittent reinforcement
reinforcement schedule in which some, but not all correct responses are reinforced
Schedules of reinforcement?
ratio schedules and interval schedules
Ratio schedules:
reinforcement depends on the number of correct responses
Interval schedules:
reinforcement depends on the time elapsed
Fixed ratio (FR)
reinforcement is continent on a certain unchanging number of responses
Variable ratio (VR)
reinforcement presented after a certain number of responses, but that number changes from trial to trial.
Fixed interval (FI)
reinforcement present after a certain fixed amount of time, regardless of number of responses
Variable interval (VI)
reinforcement present after a certain amount of time, but that amount varies from trial to trial.
What is a primary reinforcement?
Something with innate biological value - such as food or sex
Conditioned or secondary reinforcers?
money, tokens, etc.

They have an association with primary reinforcement.