Why might an anthropologist consider the fans of a sports team a culture?
The fans share a set of beliefs and behaviors about their team.
Any group that shares common beliefs and behaviors might be considered a culture.
No individual has his or her own culture, however; culture is shared.
Which of the following terms refers to the process of learning culture?
All humans begin learning culture from birth as we observe and interact with the world around us.
you arrive at a red eight-sided sign when driving your car and know that the sign is suggesting that you stop
anything that signifies something else.
some, but not all, cultures participate in daylight saving time.
mental map of reality
cultural classifications of what kinds of people and things exist, and the assignment of meaning to those classifications
there are rules governing when to kiss someone
ideas or rules about how people should be have in particular situations or toward certain other people.
freedom of religion is a cornerstone of American society
fundamental beliefs about what is important, true, or beautiful, and what makes a good life.
norms, values, symbols, and mental maps of reality are separate concepts that together form the basis of human culture.
they are interrelated concepts, meaning that a culture's mental map of reality may well be result of its values, and may affect the norms it uses and the symbols gestures used to carry out said norms
which of the following theoretical perspectives sees culture as a symbolic system of deep meaning?
the interpretivist approach --a conceptual framework that sees culture primarily as a symbolic system of deep meaning.
such as Clifford Greetz have argued that we need to understand the multiple layers of meaning revealed by the simplest of actions, such as differences between winking and twitching of the eye, in order to fully understand human culture. to the interpretivist, every cultural action can be viewed as a symbol of deeper meaning.
contemporary debates about privacy in American society post 9/11 are fundamentally debates about which
all culture promote and cultivate what we call core values. these fundamental in our understanding of what is important, what comprises a good life.
the handshake as a form of greeting in the US is an
the handshake itself is simply a behavior. Americans and others attach meaning to the handshake, however, thus making it a cultural symbols.
Americans tend to drive on the right side of the road.
norms define aspects of our behavior within our society,
the belief that culture is held together by a series of important elements such as economy, education, religion, kinship and politics that all serve to maintain societal equilibrium is
purposefully ignored the influence of outside factors such as history and environment on societies, focusing instead on how to economy, religion work together.
this type of focus, they argued, would yield better insight into the functioning of human societies.
Franz Booas believed that cultures develop in different ways because of the unique and complex sets of issues and situations that members of the cultural group face overtime
Boas would inspire many other anthropologists to see culture in nonlinear ways, and was among the first to recognize the importance of cultural history in determining current belief and behavior.
societies are not omnipotent, individuals within a society do have the ability to challenge existing norms and values, and to effect change in the mental maps of reality and the structures of power.
agencyis what allows humans to challenge power, thus allowing for the creation of cultural change. such resistance is not always successful, but is important for anthros to understand as we seek to comprehend processes of cultural change.
the suggestion that all cultures progress through a similar set of stages is no longer accepted in contemporary anthropology, this theory was know as
unilineal cultural evolution.
all societies progress from savagery, through barbarism, to civilization. this theory is no longer accepted, but represents and early effort o categorize human societies.
culture is sth that is shared and learned, traits that are
unique among animal species.
culture changes constantly.
even the most fundamental of societies beliefs are subject to change over time as core beliefs come to be challenged human do exhibit unique capacity for sharing, learning and changing culture.
advances in transportation tech via seafaring allowed Europeans to travel farther and faster, thus seeing more of the diversity of the world's people. this resulted in the creation of the concept of different races of humans. this concept of race as signifying human differences is best described by which term?
mental map of reality.
allows us to classify reality; then to assign meaning to what has been classified.
early racial classifications still influence our thinking on human differences today.
the attacks of 9/11 led to serious problems in American-Muslim relations, even among those Muslims who were born and raised in America. in any balanced attempt examine the motives for the attacks, it is necessary to practice cultural relativism, which demand that we
suspend judgment and consider Muslims in their own cultural context.
cultural relativism means that we must suspend judgment in order to completely understand the beliefs and practices of others.
such suspension must be accomplished within that other cultural context. it is generally safe to stat by assuming that, at the very least, all members of that culture share norms, values believes and practices and that all of those somehow make sense to those members in line with another worldview may be considered ethnocentric or may be considered to be attempt to promote human rights.
while material power such as coercion and brute force were tools used by the Nazi regime, the creation of cultural agreement about the supposed dangers of populations such as the Jews, Roma, and others was what ultimately allowed the horrors of the Holocaust to take place. this cultural agreement is known as
allows one group, the dominant one, to build agreement and ultimately full consent among a population without using actual, direct force.
Bertha likes to eat dinner at 5 p.m.
she travels to Italy and decides she doesn't like the country because restaurants tend to open for 7 p.m. Bertha is practicing
is a challenge for everyone, including the anthros.
it challenges us to step outside our own cultural norms and beliefs, to challenge our deeply held beliefs about what is right.
the belief that cultural patterns are determined by out genetic makeup is best described using which term?
the nature versus nurture debate has been considered for decades within the social sciences. increasingly, anthropologists find decades within the social sciences. increasingly, anthros find evidence that even early human behavior was influenced more by circumstance and environment than by genetic predisposition to certain activities.
Bertram marries someone from outside his cultural group
is marriage outside of one's own group.
the appearance of McDonald's in China and the way it homogenizes Chinese culture, the influx of Mexican refugees in southern California, and the degree to which Mexican culture itself impinges on the cultural landscape of southern California are both easily observed effects of globalization, and both help to foster a
global outlook we call cosmopolitanism
global culture is developing as a result of global corporations and ideas(including encouragement of consumerism), spurred on by increased levels of migration and increasing cosmopolitanism.
there is evidence that minority residents of Anytown have reduced access to resources such as strong schools, libraries, and recreational centers than their majority counterparts. this is
means that one group of people in a society or culture experiences reduced access to both resources and privileges in the society or culture.
we often consider the idea of power as being the ability to change using direct force. it can also mean , however, that we exert______to effect change?
contemporary anthropology often investigates relationships between culture and power. the "action or influence" mentioned in this definition can more come from an individual or from a group and does not always mean direct force.
Bernice spends time each day reading online news reports from several different news agencies around the world. as result, she becomes aware f multiple ideas and perspectives, incorporating these into her own outlook and actions.
is an outlook, a way of seeing that includes difference and is global or universal in its approach.