A 37-year-old female with a history of diabetes presents with excessive urination and weakness of 2 days' duration. Her blood glucose level reads 320 mg/dL. If this patient's condition is not promptly treated, she will MOST likely develop:
A. irreversible renal failure. Correct
B. acidosis and dehydration.
C. hypoxia and overhydration.
D. severe insulin shock.
A 66-year-old woman experienced a sudden onset of difficulty breathing. She has a history of type 2 diabetes and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). On the basis of her medical history, which of the following should the EMT suspect?
A. Pulmonary embolism Correct
B. Severe hypoglycemia
C. Diabetic ketoacidosis
D. Congestive heart failure
A 75-year-old male with type 1 diabetes presents with chest pain and a general feeling of weakness. He tells you that he took his insulin today and ate a regular meal approximately 2 hours ago. You should treat this patient as though he is experiencing:
B. a heart attack. Correct
D. an acute stroke.
A man finds his 59-year-old wife unconscious on the couch. He states that she takes medications for type 2 diabetes. He further tells you that his wife has been ill recently and has not eaten for the past 24 hours. Your assessment reveals that the patient is unresponsive. You should:
A. administer oral glucose between her cheek and gum.
B. assess for the presence of a medical identification tag.
C. open and maintain her airway and assess breathing. Correct
D. administer 100% oxygen via a nonrebreathing mask.
A patient with an altered mental status; high blood glucose levels; and deep, rapid breathing may have a condition known as __________.
A. diabetic ketoacidosis Correct
B. hyperglycemic crisis
C. hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma
D. hypoglycemic crisis
A patient with hypoglycemia will often present with which of the following signs/symptoms?
A. Deep, rapid respirations
B. Warm, red, and dry skin
C. Pale, cool, and clammy skin Correct
Classic signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia include:
A. warm, dry skin; hunger; abdominal pain; and deep, slow respirations.
B. cold, clammy skin; bradycardia; hunger; and deep, rapid respirations.
C. cool, clammy skin; weakness; tachycardia; and rapid respirations. Correct
D. warm, dry skin; irritability; bradycardia; and rapid respirations.
During your assessment of a 19-year-old male, you are told that he is being treated with factor VIII. This indicates that
A. he has thrombophilia.
B. he has a thrombosis.
C. he has hemophilia A. Correct
D. his blood clots too quickly.
Excessive eating caused by cellular "hunger" is called
B. polyphagia. Correct
In contrast to type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes:
A. is commonly diagnosed in children and young adults.
B. is caused by resistance to insulin at the cellular level. Correct
C. occurs when antibodies attack insulin-producing cells.
D. is caused by a complete lack of insulin in the body.
Proper procedure for administering oral glucose to a patient includes all of the following, EXCEPT:
A. requesting permission from medical control.
B. ensuring the absence of a gag reflex. Correct
C. assessing the patient's mental status.
D. checking the medication's expiration date.
Symptomatic hypoglycemia will MOST likely develop if a patient:
A. eats a regular meal followed by mild exertion.
B. markedly overeats and misses an insulin dose.
C. misses one or two prescribed insulin injections.
D. takes too much of his or her prescribed insulin. Correct
The EMT should assess for hypoglycemia in small children with a severe illness or injury because:
A. a child's cells do not uptake glucose as rapidly as adults' do.
B. children overproduce insulin during severe illness or injury.
C. children cannot store excess glucose as effectively as adults. Correct
D. illness or injury causes the pancreas to produce less insulin.
The main function of the endocrine system is to _________.
A. maintain homeostasis Correct
B. regulate glucose and calcium
C. regulate blood flow
D. produce glandular secretions
The normal blood glucose level is between:
A. 60 and 80 mg/dL.
B. 30 and 150 mg/dL.
C. 160 and 200 mg/dL.
D. 80 and 120 mg/dL. Correct
The two main types of cells contained in blood are called _________.
A. transport and clotting
B. erythrocytes and leukocytes Correct
C. platelets and plasma
D. hemoglobin A and S
Which of the following conditions is the diabetic patient at an increased risk of developing?
A. Blindness Correct
C. Hepatitis B
Which of the following statements regarding glucose is correct?
A. Blood glucose levels decrease in the absence of insulin.
B. Most cells will function normally without glucose.
C. The brain requires glucose as much as it requires oxygen. Correct
D. The brain requires insulin to allow glucose to enter the cells.
Which of the following statements regarding sickle cell disease is correct?
A. In sickle cell disease, the red blood cells are abnormally shaped and are less able to carry oxygen. Correct
B. The red blood cells of patients with sickle cell disease are round and contain hemoglobin.
C. Because of their abnormal shape, red blood cells in patients with sickle cell disease are less apt to lodge in a blood vessel.
D. Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder that causes the blood to clot too quickly.
You are treating a 40-year-old male with a documented blood sugar reading of 480 mg/dL. The patient is semiconscious and breathing shallowly, and is receiving assisted ventilation from your partner. You should recognize that definitive treatment for this patient includes:
C. insulin. Correct