Achaemenid Empire
The Government of Achaemenid Empire was a delicate balance of central and local administration. The challenge was to find an orderly way to govern seventy types of different people across many scattered regions and in a way that many different languages would understand. Governors were appointed for various regions, the realm was divided into twenty-three districts whose administration and taxation was managed by satraps
Ahura Mazda
Name of the God in Zoroastrianism. He has six attributed called his "Amesh Spentos" which include: Divine Law, Powerful, Beneviolent, Pure, Perfect, and Immortal.
Ancestor Worship
a religious practice based on the belief that deceased family members have a continued existence, take an interest in the affairs of the world, and possess the ability to influence the fortune of the living
The sacred text of Zoroastrianism, which includes the very old hymns known as the Gathas, along with more recent material.
a theocratic islamic republic in the Middle East in western Asia
Hymns or poems written by Zarathustra; considered to be the most authoritative expressions of the Zoroastrian religion.
Series of tribes from southern Russia who, over a period of millennia, embarked on a series of migrations from India through western Europe; their greatest legacy was the broad distribution of Indo-European languages throughout Eurasia.
kingdom located in northern Greece; originally loosely organizedunder kings, became centralized under Philip II; served as basis for unifaction of unifaction of Greece and later Macedonian Empire.
Zoroastrian priests that transmitted Zoroastrian teachings orally, and then in a holy book known as the Avesta. They also made it possible for Zarathustra's compositions to survive, because of their special diligence through oral transmission.
Indo-European branch that settled in northern Persia and eventually fell to another branch, the Persians, in the sixth century.
The "Persians" who settled in India in 936 c.e. to seek a land of religious freedom away from oppression in Muslim Iran. Parsis today make up the largest community of Zoroastrians in the world.
Chinese Script
symbols or characters representing an object
a form of social organization in which a male is the family head and title is traced through the male line
Liu Bang
First emperor of the Han dynasty under which a new social and political hierarchy emerged. Scholars were on top, followed by farmers, artisans, and merchants. He chose his ministers from educated men with Confucian principals.
Han Wudi
a Chinese emperor; after Zhang Qian came back from his expedition, Zhang suggests trade relations between China and Bactria through India, and Han thought that was a fantabulous idea; China imposed political and military control over vast territories and promoted trade
Han Dynasty
(202 BC - 220 AD) dynasty started by Lui Bang; a great and long-lasting rule, it discarded the harsh policies of the Qin dynasty and adopted Confucian principles; Han rulers chose officials who passed the civil service exams rather than birth; it was a time of prosperity
heavily influenced by Chinese culture, Confucian and Buddhist ideas and the Chinese style of government, enjoyed semi-independence until the Mongols took over by force in the 1200s
The ancient region stretching from the Hindu Kush mountain range to the ancient Ganhara region of the Indian subcontinent.
the consistent dominance of one state or ideology over others
Yellow Turban Uprising
Large revolt throughout China during the Han dynasty led by desperate peasants wearing yellow turbans. This uprising tested the resilience of the Han state during the late second century CE. It weakened the Han state during the second and third centuries CE. Leads to fall of Han Dynasty
to render by threatening a person's masculinity or femininity; to deprive of strength, power or efficiency
Period of the Warring States
a time when the China was in constant war between its city states, occurring right after the fall Zhou dynasty and not ending until the formation of the Qin dynasty
Compiled by Confucius's disciples in 400sBC; basic ideas like ren(benevolence) and (li) proper conduct; one of "Four Books" used to train ancient Chinese civil servants
Persian dynasty. Based in Iran and extended to Mesopotamia. Had very heavy calvary (horses and armored troops). Government followed the example of the Achaemenid administration.
New capital of the Persian Empire established under the reign of Darius in 520 B.C.E. Qanat (kah-NAHT) Persian underground canal.
underground canal used in water systems of ancient Persians
224-651 BCE, Persian empire, capital city of Ctesiphon located on the Tigris River, major leaders: Shapur I, known for their attempt to "restore the glory of the Achaemenids", made Zoroastrianism the state religion, recreated the infrastructure of classical Persian empires
under Darius's rule these were known as governors who ruled the provinces. They collected taxes, served as judges, and put down rebellions
dynasty founded by Selucus and governed by rulers of Asia Minor from 312-64 BC, it est. 70 colonies throughout the near east
the mythical founder of chief prophet of the Ancient Persian religion known as Zoroastrianism, which influenced Jewish and later Christian belief
A religion originating in ancient Iran with the prophet Zoroaster. It centered on a single benevolent deity-Ahuramazda, Emphasizing truth-telling, purity, and reverence for nature, the religion demanded that humans choose sides between good and evil (120)
Founder of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Between 550 and 530 B.C.E. he conquered Media, Lydia, and Babylon. Revered in the traditions of both Iran and the subject peoples.
The great king of Persia. He was able to become a king after a year of a civil war following the death of someone. He is responsible for the expansion of Persia. He made a province in western India and expanded Persia as far north as Macedonia
indus river
The earliest Indian civilization, dating back to 2500bc, began in the valley of this river in the northwestern part of the subcontinent of south Asia
a payment made by a weaker power to a stronger power to obtain an assurance of peace and security
Standardized Coins
Standardized coins were a much more efficient way to trade goods.
Alexander of Macedonia
-son of Philip II -received military training in Macedonian army -student of Aristotle -great leader -conquered land in Pakistan, Iran, and India -Hellenistic: imitating Greek culture -loved and spread Greek culture (HELLENISTIC ERA/GREECE)
Free & Unfree Labor
free classes which contained bulk of persian society received income that temples made from agriculture processes; slaves worked as domestic servants or skilled laborers in households of wealthy and on constrution projects
The peninsula between the Mediterranean and the Black Seas that is now occupied by most of Turkey; also called Asia Minor
located in south central Asia; landlocked; half its area consists of high plateaus and mountains that separate the rich northern provinces from the deserts and plains of the south; cold winters and hot summers; Afghan hound and Persian cat; gold mines
the ancient kingdom of Philip II and Alexander the Great in the southeastern Balkans that is now divided among modern Macedonia and Greece and Bulgaria
a region and ancient country and wine producing region in the east of the Balkan Peninsula north of the Aegean Sea
Royal Road
A road in the Persian Empire, stretching over 1,600 miles from Susa in Persia to Sardis in Anatolia.
"Eyes and Ears of the King"
Inspectors who made unannounced visits to provinces in Persia and reported back to the king to check up on the local government
organizing a complex and large administrative structure with responsibility for carrying out day to day tasks of the organization departments and agencies of the government.
Hellenic Culture
The Hellenic Period of Greek Culture is regarded by many as one of the most creative periods in world history. Works developed in this period inspired developments not only in Rome and Western Europe, but also among Persians, Buddhists and Muslims as well.
Sian Qian
of the Han Dynasty. He is regarded as the father of Chinese historiography because of his highly praised work
castrated males used within households of Chinese emperors, usually to guard his concubines; became a political counterbalance to powerful marital relatives during later Han rule.
Kong Fuzi
"Master Philosopher Kong" or Confucius; Came from aristocratic family in Lu in China, served as educator and political advisor, did not address philosophical questions because he thought they would not help solve current problems, tried to create junzi (suprerior individuals who took a broad view of public affairs and did not allow personal interest to cloud their judgment, need strong learning and sense of moral integrity to become a government official), emphasized ren (kindness), li (propriety), and xiao (filial piety)
The system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.
filial piety, the virtue of reverence and respect for family (CONFUCIANISM)
The Confucian virtue of ____ ("benevolence" or "humaneness") means that a person will always do what is right, regardless of the consequences.
ceremonies, rituals, and rules of proper conduct in Confucian tradition
The proper way Chinese kings were expected to rule under the mandate of heaven.
philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
one of the two important concepts in Taoism; "non-action" "letting go/effortless action/going with the flow"; sage's practice allowing things to be; action is not premeditated/forced but is spontaneous and harmonius in response to the situation
ca. 369-286 BCE. great teacher of Daoism after Laozi one of the main contributors in Doaism; used stories and humour to promote a philosophy of freedom from social constraints and conditioning that could lead one back to an original undistorted state of being
Qin Dynasty
established in 221 BCE at the end of the Warring States Period following the decline of the Zhou dynasty; founded by Qin Shi Huangdi; reorganized China into large provinces; developed strong military; Great Wall was built; census introduced
Qin Shi Huangdi
First Emperor; only emperor of Qin Dynasty; legalist; abolished feudalism and established a bureaucracy; anti-religion; building of Great Wall and other public works
the "Old Master" who encouraged people to give up worldly desires in favor of nature; he founded Taoism (Daoism)
In China, a political philosophy that emphasized the unruliness of human nature and justified state coercion and control. The Qin ruling class invoked it to validate the authoritarian nature of their regime.
Great Wall
Chinese defensive fortification intended to keep out the nomadic invaders from the north; initiated during Qin dynasty and reign of Shi Huangdi.
a policy where individuals are forced by law to enlist in the army
Island where the Dutch established a fort whose purpose was to protect Dutch possessions in the East. Portuguese.
Taklamakan Desert
(China; 105,000 sq. mi.) This Desert is an extremely cold, sandy desert known for splitting the Silk Road into branches running north and south of it. It is bounded by the Kunlun, Pamir, and Tian Shan mountain ranges.
individuals who help to transmit a universalizing religion through relocation diffusion
Hindu Kush Mountains
a mountain range extending west of the Himalayas
Political Vacuum
• When there is no leadership, there's space for people to take power, sometimes leads to civil war, people fighting each other, NOT GOOD!
Ashoka Maurya
reigned a the peak of the Maurya empire. He conquered the kingdom of Kalinga in 260 B.C.E., rules through tightly organized bureaucracy, established his capital at Pataliputra, policies were written on rocks or pillars, and the empire declined after his death because of financial problems. Converted to Buddhism and made Buddhism offical religion of his empire.
Hindu concept for the pursuit of economic well-being and honest prosperity
Ancient Indian political treatise from the time of Chandragupta Maurya; its authorship was traditionally ascribed to Kautalya, and it stressed that war was inevitable
(Hinduism) the sacred 'song of God' composed about 200 BC and incorporated into the Mahabharata (a Sanskrit epic)
Tributary Alliances
seasonal wind patterns that cause wet and dry seasons
Southeast Asia
mainland region (Malay Peninsula), archipelago (chain of islands), "golden region or golden islands", melting pot of peoples, mixture of races, cultures and religions, geographical barriers, never unified under a single government, development of separate, distinctive cultures with diverse cultural practices, such as different rligions and languages
The four major social divisions in India's caste system: the Brahmin priest class, the Kshatriya warrior/administrator class, the Vaishya merchant/farmer class, and the Shudra laborer class.
The highest of the four classes of the caste system, made up of priests.
a social class separated from others by distinctions of hereditary rank or profession or wealth
Siddhartha Gautama
founder of Buddism; born a prince; left his father's wealth to find the cause of human suffering; also know as Buddha
Four Noble Truths
1) All life is full of suffering, pain, and sorrow. 2) The cause of suffering is nonvirtue, or negative deeds and mindsets such as hated and desire. 3) The only cure for suffering is to overcome nonvirture. 4) The way to overcome nonvirtue is to follow the Eightfold Path
An Indian prince named Siddhartha Gautama, who renounced his wealth and social position. After becoming 'enlightened' (the meaning of Buddha) he enunciated the principles of Buddhism. (180)
the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth
In Mahayana buddhist terminology, the label "lesser vehicle," given to the orthodox southern tradition now represented by the Theravada
one of two great schools of Buddhist doctrine emphasizing a common search for universal salvation especially through faith alone
in Hinduism, the duties and obligations of each caste
(Hinduism) an ancient language of India (the language of the Vedas and of Hinduism)
the lowest of the four classes of the caste system, made up of servants and laborers
one of two classical Hindu epics telling of the banishment of Rama from his kingdom and the abduction of his wife by a demon and Rama's restoration to the throne
(politics) granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support
A religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms
Any of a group of philosophical treatises contributing to the theology of ancient Hinduism, elaborating on the earlier Vedas.
A vast epic chronicling the events leading up to a cataclysmic battle between related kinship groups in early India. It includes the Bhagavad-Gita, the most important work of Indian sacred literature. (p. 185)
Hindu caste of cultivators, artisans, and merchants.
A religion that branched off from Hinduism and was founded by Mahavira; its belief is that everything has a soul, and its purpose was to cleanse the soul. Some were extreme aesthetics.
Future Buddhas. As the ideal types for Mahayana Buddhism, beings who have experienced enlightenment but, motivated by compassion, stop short of entering nirvana so as to help others achieve it
definition: area between Indus and Ganges river significance: where the Aryan's first conquered
Chandragupta Maurya
He founded India's first empire. He was an Indian prince who conquered a large area in the Ganges River valley soon after Alexander invaded western India.
Maurya Dynasty/Empire
Gupta Dynasty/Empire
(320 - 550 CE) The Golden Age of India occurs under the rule of the Gupta Dynasty. The Gupta established a strong central government which also allowed a degree of local control. They developed the concept of zero in the use of math, the decimal system based on the number 10, created a number writing system, developed herbal remedies, a form of plastic surgeries, and advanced architecture.
Ganges River
A river of South Asia that flows southeast from the Himalayas to the Bay of Bengal.
Kushan Empire
ruled central asia to northern india, important in spreading budhism to chinese, took control of the trade route that connected india
White Huns
nomadic invaders from central Asia; invaded India; disrupted Gupta administration
An enormous southeast Asian state made up of an archipelago of over 13,000 islands, 6,000 of which are inhabited, the most populous being Java. The state is composed of many different ethnic and language groups, and is of questionable unity. The fourth largest state in the world with a population of about 200 million. occupied by japan in world war 2 GDP is about $200 billion in U.S. dollars, slightly less than $1,000 per capita. Principal economic products are oil, gas, coffee, rubber, pepper, textiles, coal, and increasingly manufactured goods. Indonesia gained its independence in 1945 after many years of colonization by the Dutch
(Hinduism) a Hindu caste or distinctive social group of which there are thousands throughout India
A religion that branched off from Hinduism and was founded by Mahavira; its belief is that everything has a soul, and its purpose was to cleanse the soul. Some were extreme aesthetics.
Noble Eightfold Path (Eightfold Path)
the fourth of the Four Noble Truths; defines the basic practices of Buddhism that lead to nirvana
a Buddhist and Hindu and especially Jainist doctrine holding that all forms of life are sacred and urging the avoidance of violence
religious buildings that originally housed Buddha relics. Stupas developed into familiar Buddhist architecture
an island in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern coast of India
Arabic" Numerals
A written number system created during the Gupta golden age in India, then adopted by the Islamic Empire before spreading further. Used throughout western civilization today.
Silk Road
An ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean Sea extending some 6,440 km (4,000 mi) and linking China with the Roman Empire. Marco Polo followed the route on his journey to Cathay.
White Huns
Invaders who weakened the empire of the Guptas.