Cyrus the Achaemenid
the founder and leader of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
the first Persian empire and ruled by Cyrus
the son of Cyrus who took the reigns after Cyrus's death
the most successful leader of the Achaemenid empire and kinsman of Cyrus
the capital of Darius's empire
administrative and taxation districts governed by satraps
underground canal that distributed water for agriculture
Darius's successor who sought to impose his own values on conquered lands which led to the fall of the Achaemenid
Persian Wars
a series of conflicts between the Persians and the Ionian Greeks
a former commander of the elite corps of guards in Alexander's army who led the Seleucid empire
Seleucid Empire
one of the three empires formed after the Achaemenid ruled by Seleucus
Parthian Empire
empire ruled after the Seleucid who ruled using a federation of leaders
Mithradates I
the greatest emperor of the Parthian empire
Sasanid Empire
empire that toppled the Parthians and ruled Persia until it was invaded by Arab warriors
Shapur I
a Sasanid ruler who defeated Roman armies and created a series of buffer states
a slave of classical Persia who is well-known for his various misadventures
new faith founded by Zarathrusta and reflected the cosmopolitan society of the empires
the founder of Zoroastrianism and claimed himself the chosen prophet by Ahura Mazda
Ahura Mazda
"the wise lord" who chose Zarathrusta as his prophet
priests who orally transmitted Zarathrusta's doctrine and teachings
Zarathrusta's hymns he that he composed in honor of the various deities that he recognized
Angra Mainyu
the adversary of Ahura Mazda; also known as the "hostile spirit"
Greek poet who composed the Iliad and Odyssey
Minoan Society
early Greek society based on the island of Crete that later fell under foreign domination
Mycenaean Society
early Greek society named after Mycenae and devised a syllabic script called Linear B
(poleis in plural) term for Greek city-states
neighboring peoples of Sparta that became servants of the Spartan state
one of the most important of the poleis that was situated in the region of the Peloponnesus
one of the most important of the poleis and relieved tensions by establishing a government based on military principles
the most popular leader of the Athenian democracy
The Delian League
an alliance created by the poleis to discourage further Persian actions in Greece (also led by Athens)
Peloponnesian War
a civil conflict in Greece with the Spartans against the Athenians, where the Spartans forced the Athenians to surrender
a kingdom and frontier state north of peninsular Greece
King Philip II
ruler of Macedon who eventually built a powerful military and brought Greece under his control
Alexander the Great
son of King Philip II who took the reigns as ruler and also brought Persian under his control as he became the new Persian emperor
Hellenistic Era
the era of Alexander and his successors when Greek cultural traditions expanded their influence beyond Greece itself to a much larger world
Antigonid Empire
the smallest of the Hellenistic empires
Ptolemaic Empire
the wealthiest of the Hellenistic empires who's capital is based on Alexandria
Seleucid Empire
the empire where Greek influence reached its greatest extent
King Menander
a ruler of Bactria who was one of the Greek Buddhist converts
Olympic games
best known of the panhellenic festivals where the best Mediterranean athletes engage in contests of speed, strength, and skill
a famous female poet whose surviving verse speaks of her strong physical attraction to young women
a slave who worked as a porter and was rewarded for his efforts and eventually gained his freedom
a thoughtful and reflective Athenian driven by a powerful urge to understand humans and human affairs in all their complexity
Socrates' most famous disciple and elaborated a systematic philosophy of great subtlety and invented a theory of Forms and Ideas
disciple of Plato who distrusted the theory of Forms and Ideas and was called "the master of those who know"
Eleusinian mysteries
a popular Greek cult which sponsored a community meal and encouraged initiates to observe high moral standards
Hellenistic philosophers who identified pleasure as the greatest good
Hellenistic philosophers who sought equanimity and left contentious issues to others
Hellenistic philosophers who considered all human beings members of a single, universal family
dynamic people of early Rome who dominated much of Italy between the eighth and fifth centuries BC
executives who were elected to serve one-year terms in early Roman Republic
officials elected by plebeians who possessed the right to veto unfair measures
the wealthy classes of Rome
the common people or class of Rome
Celtic people who on several occasions invaded Italy
a city-state who became the dominant political power in north Africa
Punic Wars
a series of conflicts where the Romans clashed with the Carthaginians which ended when the Romans defeated the Carthaginians and annexed their possessions
enormous plantations that were based on conquered lands of wealthy elites
Gracchi Brothers
the chief proponents of social reform in the Roman Republic (Tiberius and Gaius)
Julius Caesar
became master of the Roman state and named himself dictator - who claimed it for life rather than the six-month term
Octavian (Augustus)
a nephew and protegee of Julius Caesar who was named Augustus after defeating his rival, Mark Antony
pax romana
term used for a long era of peace in Rome that facilitated economic and political integration
Twelve Tables
a basic law code for citizens of the early Roman republic
mare nostrum
Roman term for the Mediterranean, "our sea"
pater familias
the father of the family
an escaped slave who once assembled an army of seventy thousand slaves against the Romans
Marcus Tullius Cicero
a Roman intellectual who adopted Stoic values and helped establish Stoicism as the most prominent school of moral philosophy of ROme
a cult dedicated to the god Mithras, who was identified with the sun and light
Jewish War
a resistance of Jews that mounted rebellions against the Romans but was defeated by the Romans
Jesus of Nazareth
a Jewish teacher whom the Christian communities recognized as their savior
Paul of Tarsus
a Jew from Anatolia who was a principal figure in the expansion of Christianity
Christian church supervisor who oversaw priests and governed their jurisdictions
silk roads
trade routes that extended from China all the way to the Mediterranean where all types of long-distance trade occurred
Gregory the Wonderworker
a missionary with a reputation of performing miracles who popularized Christianity in central Anatolia
lived during the fifth century and emphasized the human nature of Jesus
a prophet and devout Zoroastrian from Babylon who promoted a syncretic blend of Zoroastrian, Buddhist, and Christian elements into a faith known as Manichaeism
a faith founded by the prophet Mania and is a blend of Zoroastrian, Buddhist, and Christian elements
a disease that had an outbreak in the Roman empire that caused the death of about forty-five million people
Marcus Aurelius
a Roman emperor that ruled until 180 AD when he died from smallpox
The Yellow Turban rebellion
a massive uprising that proved to be the only first in a series of insurrections that plagued the late Han dynasty
barracks emperors
claimants of the imperial throne in Rome who were former generals of the army
Roman emperor who divided the Roman empire into two administrative districts: the Western and Eastern empire
Roman emperor who united the Western and Eastern empire and built a capital called Constantinople
St. Augustine
a convert of Christianity who worked to reconcile Christianity with Greek and Roman philosophical traditions