social Darwinism
The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle.
industrial revolution
Change in technology, brought about by improvements in machinery and by use of steam power
labor union
an organization of workers that tries to improve working conditions, wages, and benefits for its members
trade union
Organization of workers with the same trade or skill
american revolution
the war between Great Britain and its American colonies, 1775-83, by which the colonies won their independence.
assembly line
In a factory, an arrangement where a product is moved from worker to worker, with each person performing a single task in the making of the product.
Berlin conference 1884
Every country who wanted a part of Africa attended, and the continent was divided so no one would get into a conflict over the land.
bloody sunday
1905, peaceful protest to czar Nicholas II palace, led by Father Gapon, people killed by palace guards
boer wars
Wars between the Dutch and British in Africa. A sort of cold war between the two powers. The Dutch wanted slavery but the English didn't
boxer rebellion
A rebellion of traditionalist Chinese people who wanted to throw the foreigners out
british east india company
A joint stock company that controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years.
Agreements with European powers that gave European bankers and merchants unfair advantages in the Empire
charles darwin
English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection set forth his theory of evolution.
karl marx
German journalist and philosopher, founder of the Marxist branch of socialism. He is known for two books: The Communist Manifesto, and Das Kapital
communist manifesto
Written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels which urges an uprising by workers to seize control of the factors of production from the upper and middle classes.
congress of vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
emancipation of the serfs
Alexander II in 1861 ended serfdom in Russia; serfs did not obtain political rights and had to pay the aristocracy for lands gained
empress cixi
Empress of China and mother of Emperor Guangxi. She put her son under house arrest, supported anti-foreign movements(Boxers), and resisted reforms of the Chinese government and armed forces.
execution of louis XVI
Louis XVI was killed due to his monarchial views on ruling France, which all of the citizens greatly disagreed with
Miguel hidalgo
Mexican priest who led peasants in call for independence and improved conditions
indian national congress
A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor.
intolerable acts
A series of laws set up by Parliament to punish Massachusetts for its protests against the British
the jewel in the crown
The British nickname for India, due to its resources
maxim guns
this was the frist automatic machine gun that gave Europeans a huge advantage in fighting African armies
meiji restoration
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.
monroe doctorine
speech that said: america was closed from other colonization. warned european countries that attempt to colonize is considered dangerous to peace and safety
muhammad ali
Leader of Egyptian modernization in the early nineteenth century. He ruled Egypt as an Ottoman governor, but had imperial ambitions. His descendants ruled Egypt until overthrown in 1952.
muslim league
an organization formed in 1906 to protect the interests of India's Muslims, which later proposed that India be divided into separate Muslim and Hindu nations
napoleon bonaparte
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
open door policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
opium wars
war between Great Britain and China, began as a conflict over the opium trade, ended with the Chinese treaty to the British- the opening of 5 chinese ports to foreign merchants, and the grant of other commercial and diplomatic privileges
panama canal
The United States built the Panama Canal to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa. Columbians would not let Americans build the canal, but then with the assistance of the United States a Panamanian Revolution occurred. The new ruling people allowed the United States to build the canal.
the raj
the British rule of India
reign of terror
the period, from mid-1793 to mid-1794, when Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed
cecil rhodes
Born in 1853, played a major political and economic role in colonial South Africa. He was a financier, statesman, and empire builder with a philosophy of mystical imperialism.
rudyard kipling
British writer who wrote of "the white man's burden" and justified imperialism
the process of forcing Russian culture on all ethnic groups in the Russian Empire, had to learn customs of russians and convert to Russian orthodox
russo-japanese war
Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Manchuria. Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win. Both sent reps to Portsmouth, NH where TR mediated Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. TR won the nobel peace prize for his efforts, the 1st pres. to do so.
scramble for africa
Sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa. Other countries (Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain) acquired lesser amounts.
sepoy mutiny
an 1857 rebellion of Hindu and Muslim soldiers against the British in India
seven years war
fought between England and France, 1756-1763; known as the French and Indian War in the colonies, it started in 1754, over control of the Ohio River Valley and resulted in France's withdrawal from North America. It was the impetus for Parliament's taxing policy that led to the American Revolution.
sino-japanese war
(1894-95) War fought between China and Japan. After Korea was opened to Japanese trade in 1876, it rapidly became an arena for rivalry between the expanding Japanese state and neighbouring China.
spanish american war
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence
sphere of influence
A foreign region in which a nation has control over trade and other economic activities.
suez canal
A human-made waterway, which was opened in 1869, connecting the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. Route for British from Egypt
the state duma of russia
The State Duma was first introduced in 1906 and was Russia's first elected parliament.
steam engine
A machine that turns steam into power, crucial element in Britain's Industrial Revolution
Taiping rebellion
The most destructive civil war before the twentieth century. A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing
unequal treaties
treaties between China and the Western powers after the Opium War that vastly favored the Western powers
otto von bismarck
Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire
wealth of nations
This is the 18th century book written by Scottish economist Adam Smith in which he spells out the first modern account of free market economies.
witte industrialization program
a program begun by Count Sergei Lul'evich Witte starting in 1892; attempting to modernize and industrialize Russia to make the country more competitive with other nations
young turks party
A Turkish revolutionary nationalist reform party, officially known as the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), whose leaders led a rebellion against the Ottoman sultan and effectively ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1908 until shortly before World War I
Europe Imperialism In India
Europe had long been trading with india for there luxury items of tea, sugar, silk, salt and jute. The Mughal empire had relgious fighting b/w the hindus and muslims created an opening without a strong leader. Battle between france and england over india. England took over, with the British East India company. Created an effienct army, the sepoys, until the sepoy mutiny. The mughal empire ended, india became a crown colony and the last ruler exiled. Queen Victoria crowned empress.
Europe Imperialism in India
Britain took control over all trade in China after the second defeat of the Opium war. Government weakened, created white lotus and Taiping rebellion. Christian missionaries brought into region China lost control of Korea and Vietnam (to french), and Taiwan. With Sphere of Influence, Europe took a piece of China. Set up military bases, business, transportation, communicated operation. United states stepped in and set up Boxer rebellion. Boxer rebellion resulted in signing of Boxer Protocol. Foot binding and Chinese examination system was eliminated.
Japanese Imperialism
Built highly self involved society. Realized how underdeveloped they were, industrialized. Meiji restoration pushed out shogunate. Began building railroads and steamships. Samurai class was abolished and universal military service for all men was established. Increase in cultural creativity. Military power rose, defeated china for control of Korea and Taiwan. Maintained trade.
Europe in Africa
South Africa: before gold and diamonds discovered, Europe only used Africa for shipping and military reasons.When it was discovered by Boers, Boer war started. South Africa was annexed under Europe. Still had self rule, white men could only vote, natives had few rights, Educated Africans organized African national congress to oppose European colonialism. Ended badly.
Ottoman empire (Egypt)
Muhammad Ali took control of Egypt , industrialization and expanded agriculture toward cotton production that was exported to Britain. Building of Suez Canal made Britain declare Egypt a British protectorate, but Egypt was still held political power.
Africa was colonized by Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal and Belgium, only leaving Ethiopia and Liberia as an independent state. Every ruler except Britain controlled their region directly, so Britain regions where free to practiced their own custom. Added in roads, railroad, dams, traditional African schools, European schools, christian missionaries, and western business practices.
American Revolution
Thomas Paine urged those to support this movement, telling colonist to form a better govt. Printing press was a powerful tool during this time. France aided in revolution, conquered core of British army. The Constitution and the bill o frights were written, ratified and put into effect, with a strong democracy.
French Revolution
New constitution the Convention became the new ruling body, made france a republic led by the radicals, the jacobins, they imprisoned the royal family and beheaded the king.
French exported coffee, coca and indigo. Owned huge plantations and slaves who grew an harvested crops under harsh conditions. Pierre led a violent revolt , successful due to yellow fever which killed of many french.
Son of Portuguese King John VI, Pedro declared Brazil an independent and crowned himself emperor, in a few years, Brazil had a constitution. Son Pedro II turned it into a major exporter of coffee, which angred the land owning class, overthrew he monarchy and established a republic.
After the efforts of Miguel Hidalgo and Jose Morelos, the treaty of Cordora, Spain lost control of Mexico, and Central America soon followed.
Was being controlled by Austria, France and Spain. King of Sardinia named Count Camillo Cavour the minister and nationalism took off. Able to remove Austria influence. Giuseppe Garibaldi raised up a volunteer army and drove spain out. By 1861, a large part of Italy was unified and declared itself a kingdom under Victor Emmanuel II.
The area was dominated by two powers, Prussa and Austria. Many wanted to united Germany so they could compete with the great powers. Appointed Otto Von Bismarck prime minister. Defeated Prussia and wit the help of the Franco-Prussian war, gave German control over catholic regions. Crowned King William emperor and stated the First Reich. With the industrial revolution, built a huge navy, and tried colonial growth in Africa and Asia.
Emancipation of the serfs did little to help the peasents. Middle classs started to grow and the arts began to flourish. Russification started.
Pierre Toussaint L'overture
"The Black Napolean" and led the revolution in Haiti that defeated the French
Jacques Dessalines
the guy that proclaimed haiti as free
Jose de san Martin
South American general and statesman, born in Argentina: leader in winning independence for Argentina, Peru, and Chile; protector of Peru
Simon Bolivar
The most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, he led military forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.
Miguel Hidalgo
Mexican priest and revolutionary. Although the revolt he initiated against Spanish rule failed, he is regarded as a national hero in Mexico's struggle for independence from Spain.
Jose Morelos
Mexican priest and former student of Miguel Hidalgo, he led the forces fighting for Mexican independence until he was captured and executed in 1814.