As written documents, the state constitutions were intended to
represent a fundamental law superior to ordinary legislation
The consitutional convention addressed the North-South controversy over slavery through the
three-fifths compromise
the major issue that delayed ratification of the Articles of Confederation concerned
Western lands
the struggle for divorce between religion and government proved fiercest in
The one branch of the government elected directly by the people is the
House of Representatives
The Articles of Confederation were finally approved when
all states claiming western lands surrendered them to the national government.
Under the Constitution, the president of the U.S. was to be elected by a majority vote of the
Electoral College
A major strength of the Articles of Confederation was its
presentation of the ideal of a united nation
the debate between the supporters and critics of the Articles of confederation centered on how to
reconcile states' rights with strong national government
the new Constitution established the idea that the only legitimate government was one based on
the consent of the governed
One of the most farsighted provisions of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787
prohibited slavery in the Old Northwest.
After the Revolutionary War, both Britain and Spain
prevented America from exercising effective control over about half of its total territory
the economic status of the average American at the end of the Revolutionary War was
probably worse than before the war
The issue that finally touched off the movement toward the Constitutional Convention was
control of commerce
The delegate whose contributions to the Philadelphia Convention were so notable that he has been called the "Father of the Constitution" was
James Madison
the Constitutional Convention was called to
revise the Articles of Confederation.
by their actions, the delegates to the Constitutional Convention manifested their common beliefs in all of the following except
manhood-suffrage democracy.
Which of the following Revolutionary leaders was NOT present at the Constitutional convention?
Thomas Jefferson
the Second Continental Congress of Revolutionary days
was little more than a conference of ambassadors with very limited power.
Most of the delegates at the Constitutional Convention could be best be labeled
As a result of the Revolution's emphasis on equality, al of the following were achieved except
full equality between women and men.
shays's Rebellion convinced many Americans of the need for
a stronger central government.
The most important outcome of the Revolution for white women was that they
were elevated as special keepers of the nation's conscience.
One of the enduring paradoxes of American history is that
both liberals and conservatives have championed the heritage of democratic revolution.
Early signs of the abolitionist movement can be seen in the
emancipation of some slaves.
continental army officers attempting to form the society of the Cincinati
were ridiculed for their lordly presentions
Match each nation of the left with the correct description of the problem it presented for
Britain = occupied a chain of trading forts in the Old Northwest ; France = demanded repayment of wartime loans ; Spain = controlled important trade routes from the interior of North America ; Barbary Coast = threatened American commerce in the Mediterranean
the "large-state plan" put forward in the Constitutional convention
based representation in the House and Senate on population.
The Articles of Confederation left congress unable to
enforce a tax-collection program
Antifederalists believe that the sovereignt of the people resided in which branch of the central government
One reason that the U.S. avoided the frightful excesses of the French Revolution is that
cheap land was easily available.
the world's first antislavery society was founded by
quakers in Philadelhia
the northwest Ordinance of 1787
established a procedure for governing the Old Northwest territory.
The Great Compromise at the consitutional convention worked out an acceptable scheme for
apportioning congressional representation.
the American Revolution was
an example of accelerated evolution rather than outright revolution
As a result of the Revolution, many state capitals were relocated westward
to get them away from the haughty eastern seaports.
the delegates at the Constitutional convention were concerned mainly with
protecting America from its weaknesses abroad and its excesses at home
Under the Articles of Confederation, the relationship between the thirteen states
was god politically but poor economically
Immediately after the Revolution, the new American nation's greatest strength lay in its
excellent political leadership
Shays's Rebellion was provoked by
foreclosures on the mortgages of backcountry farmers.
Motives of the delegates to the 1787 constitutional Convention in Philadelphia include all of the following except
to increase individual freedom
the delegates at the Constitutional Convention stipulated that the new Constitution be radified by
state conventions
The idea that all tax measures should start in the House was made to appease
the big states with the most people
by the time the Constitution was adopted in 1789
prosperity was beginning to return
the ultimate guarantor of liberty and justice was
the virtue of the people.
Alexander hamilton's proposed bank of the US. Was
based on the "necessary and proper"l or "elastic", clause in the Constitution
One of the major criticisms of the Constitution as drafted in Philadelphia was that it
did not provide guarantees for individual rights.
President Adams sought a peaceful solution top to the undeclared war with France in order
to prevent the outbreak of a full scale war
Britain made neutrality very difficult for the U.S. during the French and British conflicts for the 1790s by
seizing American merchant ships in the West Indies.
Thomas Jefferson appealed to all of the following groups except
the upper class.
When the French Revolution developed into a war with Britain, George Washington and the American government
remained neutral
The aspect of Hamilton's financial program that received the least support in Congress was
a protective tariff
Washington's Neutrality Proclamation of 1793
was based on calculations of American self-interest.
For its continued success, Hamilton's financial program relied heavily on
trade with Britain
Alexander Hamilton's financial plan for strengthening the economy and bolstering national credit proposed all of the following except
abolishing tariffs
Thomas Jefferson favored a political system in which
the states retained the majority of political power.
As Secretary of The Treasury, Alexander Hamilton's first objective was to
bolster the national credit
the Sedition Act
threatened First Amendment freedoms
the franco-American alliance of 1778
bound the U.S. to help the French defend their West Indies.
Washington's Neutrality Proclamation clearly illustrated the truism that
self interest is the basic cement of alliances.
Hamilton believed that together his funding and assumption programs would
gain the monetary and political support of the rich for the federal government
One of George Washington's major contributions as president was
keeping the nation out of foreign wars.
the new constitution did not provide for the creation of a(n)
the main purpose of the Alien and Sedition Acts was to
silence and punish critics of the Federalists
Foreign relations between the U.S. and France deteriorated in the late 1790s over
French seizure of American merchant ships.
According to the compact theory advocated by Jefferson and Madison
the national government was the creation of the thirteen sovereign states
All of the following are guarantees provided by the Bill of Rights except
the right to vote for all citizens.
the 1796 presidential campaign focused heavily on
the candidates' personalities.
the U.S finally negotiated a peace settlement with France in 1800 mainly because Napoleon
wanted to concentrate on gaining more power in Europe
the political party of the "outs" that provided the "loyal opposition" to the party in power in the 1790s was
the Democratic - Republicans.
In Jay's Treaty, the British
promised to evacuate the chain of forts in the Old Northwest.
during its first quarter-century as a nation, one of the major problems facing America was
the rivalry and warfare between France and Britain.
Which of the following pairs of items are not directly related to each other
State's rights: loose construction
Opposition by Thomas Jefferson and james Madison to the financial plan of Alexander Hamilton resulted in
the formation of permanent political parties
all of the following were part of Alexander hamilton's economic program except
paying only domestic debts but not foreign debts.
the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions were written in response to
the Alien and Sedition Acts.
Washington's Farewell Address in 1796
warned against the dangers of permanent foreign alliances
federalist strongly supported
law and order.
the immediate cause of the undeclared war between the United States and France was
the XYZ affairs
One of the first jobs facing the new government formed under the Constitution was to
draw up and pass a bill of rights.
At the beginning of the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln favored
quick military action to show the folly of secession
Lincoln hoped that a Union victory at bull Run would
lead to the capture of the Confederate capital at Richmond.
Arrange the following in chronological order: (a) Battle of bull run (b) Battle of Gettysburg (c) lee's surrender at Appomattox (d) Battle of Antietam
A, D, B, C
The South's victory at Bull run in 18
reduced enlistments in the South's army
In the Civil War, the South won the battle of
Bull Run
The Union's defeat in battle at Bull Run in 1861 was better than a victory because
the defeat caused Northerners to face up to the reality of a long, difficult war
George B. McClellan is best described as
After assuming command of the Army of the Potomac, General George McClellan made the mistake of
consistently believing that the enemy outnumbered him.
as a result of the Union loss in the Peninsula campaign
Lincoln began to draft the Emancipation Proclamation.
After the Peninsula Campaign, Union strategy included al of the following except
by passing the confederate capital at Richmond.
As a result of the Confederate victory in the Peninsula Campaign
the Union turned to a strategy of total war.
the final Union war strategy included all the following components except
guerrilla warfare
Britain did not protest too loudly against the Union naval blockade of the Confederacy because
Britain might want to use a similar blockade in a future war.
the most alarming Confederate threat to the Union blockade came from
the ironclad Merrimack (the Virginia)
The Confederate blockade runner, the Merrimack, was
destroyed by Confederate soldiers.
After halting Lee's troops at Antietam, General George McClellan
was removed from his field command.
One of the key developments enabling the Union to stop the Confederate thrust into the North at Antietam was
the Union's discovery of Robert E. Lee battle plans
The two major battles of the Civil War fought on Union soil were
Gettysburg and Antietam
the Battle of Antietam was particularly critical because it
probably prevented intervention by Britain and France on behalf of the confederacy
the North's "victory" at Antietam allowed President Lincoln to
issue the Emancipation Proclamation.
Slavery was legally abolished in the United States by the
thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution
The Emancipation Proclamation had the effect of
strengthening the moral cause and diplomatic position of the Union.
When it was issued in 1863, the Emancipation Proclamation declared free only those slaves in
states still in rebellion against the United States
all of the following occurred as a result of the Emancipation Proclamation except
the disappearance of European working class support for the Union
During the civil war
blacks were enlisted by the Union army only after the Emancipation Proclamation was issued
African American who fought for the Union Army in the Civil War
served bravely and suffered extremely heavy casualties
the Confederacy enlisted slaves into their army
a month before the war ended.
Robert E. Lee decided to invade the north through Pennsylvania in order to
deliver a decisive blow that would strengthen the Northern peace movement.
the Battle of Gettysburg was significant because
Union victory meant that the southern cause was doomed.
the Union victory at Vicksburg was of major importance because
it reopened the Mississippi River to Northern trade; it coupled with the victory at Gettysburg, foreign help for the confederacy was irretrievably lost; It helped to quell Northern Peace agitation; It cut off the supply of cattle and other goods from Texas and Louisiana.
One consequence of General William T. Sherman's style of warfare was
a shorter war that saved lives.
The group in the North most dangerous to the Union cause was the
Northern Peace Democrats.
clement L. Vallandigham, a Southern sympathizer and vocal opponent of the war, was dirisively labled a
In the election of 1864, the Republicans joined with the prowar Democrats and founded the __________ party
in the 1864 election, Abraham Lincoln's running mate was
Andrew Johnson
In the 1864 eleciton, the Democratic party nominated ____________ to oppose Lincoln's reelection
George McClellan
The Union army's victory in the capture of ________ was probably critical to Lincoln's reelection in 1864
General Ulysses S. Grant's basic strategy in the civil War involved
assailing the enemy's armies simultaneously and directly.
during the Civil War, Grant lost one man to every ______, and Lee lost one man to every
10, 5
the assassination of Abraham Lincoln
was a calamity for the South.
The supreme test of American democracy in the nineteenth century was
the Civil War
the Civil War resulted in which of the following
expanded federal powers of taxation + the end of nullification and secession + the creation of the first federal social welfare agency + the end of slavery
123. which one of the following is least related to the other three: scalawags OR KKK Or carpetbaggers OR freedmen OR Union League
the greatest achievements of the Freemen's Bureau were in
Radical Reconstruction state governments
passed much desirable legislation and badly needed reforms.
the fourteenth Amendment guaranteed
citizenship and civil rights to freed slaves
the controversy surrounding the Wade-Davis Bill and the readmission of the confederate states to the Union demonstrated
the deep differences between President Lincoln and Congress.
Political corruption during Reconstruction was
common in both North and South
In the 1866 congressional elections
voters endorsed the congressional approach to Reconstruction.
the main purpose of the black Codes was to
ensure a stable and subservient labor supply
the root cause of the battle between congress and President Andrew Johnson was
Johnson's personal vulgarity and crude style of campaigning.
Reconstruction might have been more successful if
the U.s. army had more quickly suppressed the KKK
in 1865, Southern
blacks often began traveling to test their freedom, search for family members, and seek economic opportunity.
in the postwar south
the economy was utterly devastated.
the fate of the defeated Confederate leaders was that
after brief jail terms all were pardoned in 1868
Radical congressional Reconstruction of the South finally ended when
blacks showed they could defend their rights without federal intervention
for congressional Republicans, one of the most troubling aspects of the southern states's quick restoration to the Union was that
with the black population fully counted, the South would be stronger than ever in national politics.
In 1867, Secretary of State Seward achieved the Johnson administration's greatest success in foreign relations when he
purchased Alaska from Russia
That the southern states were conquered provinces" that had completely left the Union and were therefore at the mercy of Congress for readmission was the view of
congressional Republicans
the official charge that the House of Representatives used to impeach President Johnson was his
dismissal of Secretary of War stanton contrary to the Tenure of Office Act.
blacks in the South relied on the Union League to
educate them on their civic duties.
All of the following were reasons the Senate voted to acquit President Andrew Johnson except
Johnson promised to step down as President.
In president Andrew Johnson's view, the Freedmen's bureau was
acceptable only because it also helped poor whites
As a politician, Andrew Johnson developed a reputation as
a champion of the poor whites.
The incident that caused the clash between congress and President Johnson to explode into the open was
the south's regaining control of the Senate.
the white South viewed the Freedmen's Bureau as
a meddlesome federal agency that threatened to upset the white racial dominance
The Fourteenth Amendment
prohibited ex-confederate leaders from holding public office.
President Johnson's plan for Reconstruction
aimed at swift restoration of the Southern states after a few basic conditions were met.
Even though the Force Acts and the Union Army helped suppress the KKK, the secret organization largely achieved its central goal of
intimidating blacks and undermining them politically
the black Codes provided for all of the following except
voting by blacks
many feminist leaders were especially disappointed with the fourteenth Amendment because it
guaranteed male but not female property rights.
Which of the following was not one of the Reconstruction era constitutional amendments
In his 10% plan for Reconstruction, President Lincoln promised
rapid readmission of Southern states into the union.
during Reconstruction, African American women assumed new political roles which included all of the following except
Freedom for Southern blacks at the end of the civil War
came haltingly and unevenly in different parts of the conquered confederacy
to many Northerners, the black Codes seemed to indicate that
the transition to black freedom would be difficult.
the first and only ex-confederate state to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment in 1866 and thus be immediately readmitted to the Union under congressional Reconstruction was
At the end of the Civil War, many white Southerners
still believed that their view of secession was correct
A primary motive for the formation of the Ku Klux Klan was
white resentment of the ability and success of black legislators.
for blacks, emancipation meant all of the following except
that large numbers would move north