WAHENGINEERING COLLEGEEngineering Ethics Report Submitted to:Sir Salman Ahmad Submitted by:Amir Raza UW-14-B.
Sc-EE-28Muhammad Abbas Raza UW-14-B.Sc-EE-29Qamar Ilyas UW-14-B.Sc-EE-32Muhammad Owais UW-14-B.Sc-EE-48 Department of Electrical EngineeringWah Engineering College (University of Wah)Wah Cantt PovertyHadith:Narrated Hakim bin Hizam:The Prophet(P.B.
U.H) said,"The upper hand is better than the lower hand (i.e. he who gives incharity is better than him who takes it)….
"Ref:96 hadith found in 'Obligatory Charity Tax (Zakat)'of Sahih BukhariPoverty:" A certain level ofmaterial deprivation, below which an individual suffers physically, emotionallyand socially. Poverty also includes low levels of health,education, poor access to clean water and sanitation, security, andinsufficient capacity and opportunity to better one's life.POVERTY is a denial ofchoices and opportunities, a violation of human dignity. It means lack of basiccapacity to participate effectively in society.
It means not having enough tofeed and clothe a family, not having a school or clinic to go to, not havingthe land on which to grow one's food or a job to earn one's living, not havingaccess to credit.Types of Poverty:1. Absolute povertyIndividually lack of basic human needs like cleanwater, nutrition, health care, education, clothing and shelter.2. Relative povertyThe condition of having fewer resources or lesserincome as compared to others, within a society as compared to others, within asociety or a country or as compared to worldwide averages.
Poverty inPakistan:Poverty inPakistan has fallendramatically, independent bodies supported estimates of a considerable fall inthe statistic by the 2007-08 fiscalyear, when it wasestimated that 17.2% of the total population lived below the povertyline. The declining trend in poverty as seen in the country during the1970s and 1980s was reversed in the 1990s by poor federal policies and rampantcorruption. This phenomenon has been referred to as the"poverty bomb".
In 2001, the government was assisted by the International Monetary Fund(IMF) in preparing the Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper thatsuggests guidelines to reduce poverty in the country. According to areport sub mitted by Ministry of Planning and Development in the NationalAssembly of Pakistan, about 29.5% Pakistani lived below the poverty line whichtranslates into 55 million people.Statistics:According to an estimate of 2015, poverty indifferent provinces of Pakistan is given below:Ø KPK 32%Ø Punjab 19%Ø Baluchistan 16%Ø Sindh 33%A comparison of percentage poverty for 2005 and 2015is shown of graph: Poverty Cycle:A poverty cycle is shown here.
If afamily is poor then their children would grow in poor environment. They willnot struggle to achieve good opportunities. If anyone of them gets education.There are less numbers of chances to get a job.
It results that, he could notescape from this environment and his new family grows in poor environmentagain. This cycle is repeated again and again and it becomes difficult for apoor man to get rid of poverty. Causes of Poverty:Some causes of poverty are, changing trends in a country'seconomy, lack of education, high divorce rate which causes feminization of poverty, having a culture of poverty, overpopulation,epidemic diseases such as AIDS and malaria, and environmental problemssuch as lack of rainfall and others.In California reduced poverty inthe elderly with the creation of the social security program. Almost50 percent of people in the world today live on less than $2.
50 per day.The poverty rate among seniors in the UnitedStates is at 9 percent as of 2010.In 1960 the official poverty rate among theelderly was 35 percent.The Netherlands offers a universal pension and leads theworld with a 1.7 percent poverty rate among the elderly.Extreme poverty mayaffect the lifespan and the lack of money via some type of pension systemincreases the poverty rate among the elderly worldwide.
Issues like hunger,illness and thirst are all causes and effects of poverty.Extreme weather may be a causeof poverty in many countries. Drought,rainfall and flooding are some of the biggest causes of poverty by weather.When natural disasters donot gain media attention raising money becomes more difficult. This is madeworse when governments spend money in the capitals instead of the poorest areaswhich need it most. Some other causes are also given below:Ø Natural disasters:Ø FeudalismØ Lack of governanceØ Poor environmentØ Lack of poor vision and poor parentingØ Lack of educationØ Lack of resourcesØ Lack of planningØ No family supportØ Bad character and bad moralsØ Selfishness and greedØ CorruptionEffects:The effects of poverty are serious.
Childrenwho grow up in poverty suffer more persistent, frequent, and severe healthproblems than do children who grow up under better financial circumstances.Ø Many infants born into poverty have a lowbirth weight, which is associated with many preventable mental and physicaldisabilities. Not only are these poor infants more likely to be irritable orsickly, they are also more likely to die before their first birthday.Ø Children raised in poverty tend to miss schoolmore often because of illness. These children also have a much higher rate ofaccidents than do other children, and they are twice as likely to have impairedvision and hearing, iron deficiency anemia, and higher than normal levels oflead in the blood, which can impair brain function.Levels of stress in thefamily have also been shown to correlate with economic circumstances.
Studiesduring economic recessions indicate that job loss and subsequent poverty areassociated with violence in families, including child and elder abuse. Poorfamilies experience much more stress than middle?class families. Besidesfinancial uncertainty, these families are more likely to be exposed to seriesof negative events and "bad luck," including illness, depression, eviction, jobloss, criminal victimization, and family death. Parents who experience hardeconomic times may become excessively punitive and erratic, issuing demandsbacked by insults, threats, and corporal punishment.
Some other effects aregiven below:Ø Bad healthØ Hunger and painØ CrimeØ Drug abuseØ IlliteracyØ TerrorismØ DepressionSolutions to OvercomePoverty:The best pathway outof poverty is a well-paying job. To get back to prerecession employment levels,we must create 5.6 million newjobs. At the current pace, however, we will not get there until July 2018. To kick-startjob growth, the federal government should invest in job-creation strategiessuch as rebuilding our infrastructure; developing renewable energy sources;renovating abandoned housing; and making other common-sense investments thatcreate jobs, revitalize neighborhoods, and boost our national economy.
Weshould also build on proven models of subsidizedemployment to help the long-term unemployed and otherdisadvantaged workers re-enter the labor force.In the late 1960s, afull-time worker earning the minimum wage could lift a family of three out ofpoverty. Had the minimum wage back then been indexed to inflation, it wouldbe $10.86 perhour today, compared to the current federal minimum wage of$7.
25 per hour. One of our nation'smost effective anti-poverty tools, the Earned Income Tax Credit, or EITC,helped more than 6.5 million Americans—including3.3 million children—avoid poverty in 2012. It's also an investment that payslong-term dividends. Children who receive the EITC are more likely tograduate high school and to have higher earnings in adulthood.
Yet childlessworkers largely miss out on the benefit, as the maximum EITC for these workersis less than one-tenth thatawarded to workers with two children.With female full-timeworkers earning just 78 cents forevery $1 earned by men, action must be taken to ensure equalpay for equal work. Closing the gender wage gap would cut poverty inhalf for working women and their families and add nearly half atrillion dollars to the nation's gross domestic product. Passing the PaycheckFairness Act to hold employers accountable for discriminatorysalary practices would be a key first step.
Thelack of affordable, high-quality child care serves as a major barrier toreaching the middle class. In fact, one year of child care for an infantcosts more than one yearof tuition at most states' four-year public colleges. Onaverage, poor families who pay out of pocket for child care spend one-third oftheir incomes just to be able to work. Furthermore, federal child careassistance reaches only one in six eligiblechildren.Someother solutions are given below:Ø Use of money in a discipline wayØ Stop discrimination of sexØ By maintaining system of ZakatØ To overcome corruptionØ Division of agriculture landØ Avoid materialismØ Live as close as you can to a budget and resistØ Better government policiesØ Good wages Ø The guarantee of house, healthcare, food education& clothsØ The guarantee of pure water and providing the allbetter rightsØ Creates reserve for unemployment fundConclusion: Poverty exists in every country andevery environment.
It has some causes, effects but solutions also. So it couldbe said that it is possible to eliminate poverty. If people and government bothare willing to eliminate poverty then it is possible to eliminate it. Ourreligion also asks to take care of poor. There is a better way to help poor inIslam and that is the way of Zakat.