Draft Frumkin (2001) , in his article“urban sprawl and public health”, analyses the physical and mental effects of urban sprawl. In the section “physical effects of urban sprawl” of the article “urban sprawl and public health”, Frumkin(2001) argues the relationship between urban sprawl and physical health. The writer points out that urban sprawl leads to high levels of driving cars and motor vehicles are a main cause of air pollution. Furthermore, air pollution results in numerous health problems.

Frumkin indicates that higher ozone levels link to more respiratory symptoms, worse lung function and more patients. Especially, air pollution may lead to people suffering from other respiratory diseases die. The author also notes that the usage of cars brings global climate change. In addition, human health is affected by global climate change in many ways, involving the influences of heat, enhancement of air pollutants and more epidemic.

Frumkin suggests that sprawl is linked with reduction od physical exercise since cars replace bikes and foot. Reduction of physical exercise contributes to obesity. A number of health problems are driven by both decreased physical exercise and obesity. In the “social effects of urban sprawl” section of the paper “urban sprawl and public health”, Frumkin(2001) examines the mental effects of urban sprawl.

Although Frumkin concedes that one aspect of sprawl, moving to the suburbs to contact nature may benefit health, other aspects of sprawl may have bad effects on human health. The writer claims that automobile commuting causes stress and stress-related health problems. Furthermore, road rage which is on the rise may be an indicator of such problems. Frumkin predicts that people who need longer time drive cars on overcrowded roads may have commuting pressure and that may threaten human mental health.