Cyber security is one of the most significant Issues facing world leaders today.

Besides, threats from cyber attacks pose serious challenges to global network. In fact, most governments recognize the need to Implement cyber security In Information and Communications Technology (CIT) systems. Cyber security Is Important because it ensures security of Information. CIT systems encompass various aspects of the government. For instance, CIT systems cover national security, well being and economy of the government.

Essentially, cyber security ensures that reliable information is relayed to the right systems. Notably, Australian authorities are increasing awareness on cyber crimes. Additionally, governments across the world are increasing awareness on cyber attacks. Particularly, governments try to mitigate on cyber crimes by upgrading their defense systems. These actions are aimed at achieving safe and reliable CIT systems.

However, governments also face obstacles in their efforts to achieve resilient CIT systems. This paper will provide a literature review on technology and the impact of cyber crime (Australian Government, 2009).Cyber security Is a term coined by computer scientists. It refers to security of computer systems. Cyber security Involves protection of Information, which Is transmitted through the computer. The term cyber security was coined In the sass.

Computer scientists were keen to outline challenges of networking computers. Cyber security presents numerous threats to computer systems. These included threat to organizations as well as threats to individuals. Cyber criminals may target any or both organizations and individuals.

Cyber security tries to minimize attack on computer systems. Additionally, it tries to assure organizations and individuals of the safety and privacy of their data. Cyber criminals targeting national issues tend to attack government systems. Consequently, each government tries to avert such attacks in the best possible manner.

Governments hold top security information that must be transmitted In a safe and reliable manner. This Information is usually the target for some cyber criminals with the alma of leaking such Information to the public (George Tech. , 2012).To achieve cyber security In a constantly changing technological world, devices utilized to store or transmit information should meet security compliance standards as stipulated by the organization in charge of cyber security. It has been established that cyber security poses grave dangers to productivity and economy of health sector.

Moreover, cyber crimes pose threats to national security, banking systems and personal security. In this regard, cyber security can be considered to encompass aspects of confidentiality, integrity as well as availability of data (Bombard, Sings & Bath, 2013).Data can be transmitted electronically, or by other means which are similar. Australia's national security statement mentioned cyber security as significant to its social well-being, economic prosperity and national security. CIT devices Include Internet, mobile communication devices, desktop computers, laptops, networks and telecommunications, among other computer systems.

Australia Is known to be susceptible to Intrusion by cyber criminals with intent of spreading malicious codes. Moreover, complexities involved Cyber security was decades old before it was coined by computer 2012). Scientists.Issues related to cyber were dawning at a time when their solutions were limited.

It was then considered in policy making for governments. In essence, results of earlier debates on cyber security led to its emergence in mid sass. In 1945, Hopper saw a cornered moth in transmitters of a computer belonging to the Navy. She called it a bug.

Since then, scientists have utilized the term to illustrate electronic problems. The Admiral also coined the term debugging. This term was utilized to portray ways of resolving issues with electronic devices. This was followed in 1949 by John Newsman's theory on self-replicating programs like computers.This was important to the development of computers with the capability of holding information in what is now referred to as computer memory. John was a Hungarian scientist with experience in programming.

This development set stage for technological innovations in cyber viruses as well as attacks (Hansen & Einsteinium, In 1945, AT&T introduced data phone, which was considered as the first 2009). Commercial modem. This was followed closely by the development of ASCII, also known as the American standard Code for information interchange. This code allowed machines from different producers to relay information.

The following year (1964) saw close scrutinizing of calls with the aim of identifying intruders. These people produced tones to evade paying for services. AT&T conducted this surveillance between 1964 and 1970. In the end, 200 people were convicted after 33 million toll calls were monitored.

This saw a rise in number of criminals who would use their intelligence to call freely. This was followed in 1969 by the development of UNIX operating system. UNIX operating system allowed users to multi task. This was a major development in computer systems. However, it came with renewed challenges.

This was followed by the development of ARPANET, which was essential to research agencies and governments as well as universities. ARPANET was utilized as an internet forerunner. The year 1972 saw new intrusions in telephone networks. For instance, John Draper discovered a plastic whistle that unlocked phone network belonging to AT&T.

This allowed partakers to make free calls through the network as well as manipulate it. Among the partakers of this period included Kevin Nitpick who later turned to hacking. During the same year, Steve Woozier built a blue box, which he sold to Berkeley students.Two years later, another internet forerunner known as Telnet was created.

Telnet was created to complement the initial forerunner (ARPANET). In 1979, scientists found worm in electronic devices (computers). These scientists used the term worm to refer to programs that scoured networks for idle processors. Although the original computer worm was designed to improve efficiency, destructive worms also came by to erase or alter information in computers. In most cases, they left files irretrievable.

In 1983, America's FBI busted a group of hackers. The young hackers targeted United States government networks.Interestingly, some of these hackers used modems with Apple 11+ computers. During the same year, Fred Cohen coined the term computer virus. Cone's research on virus was quite significant in the development of antivirus. Cohen described imputer virus as a program that affected other programs (computer programs) by altering them.

The following year (1984), William Gibson thought of an ultramodern was created in Pakistan as the pioneer computer viruses. In 1988, Morris created a new worm. The new program attacked ARPANET. Additionally, 1991 saw the unleashing of a powerful tool for data encryption known as BGP (Pretty Good Privacy).Philip Zimmerman, a programmer, did this project.

He was later to be accused of breaking United States encryption law. However, these charges were not pursued further. The same year (1991) saw the release of Norton antivirus by Symantec. Three years later (1994), e-mail virus hoax came about.

This began when an email user sent messages advising recipients to disregard messages with specific titles. Instead, the user advised them to forward to as many recipients for compliance. This has since continued to be replicated in modern email systems.The following year, windows released Windows 95, which made antivirus companies worried on the operating system's resistance to viruses.

However, macro viruses were made, later in the year, with the capability of corrupting Windows 95. The year 1998 saw attack on CIT systems belonging to numerous government agencies. This weakened the use of Sun Solaris operating system. It was later realized that two teenagers were involved in the attacks. This realization thwarted initial thoughts, which were pointed towards Iraqi operatives.

This also raised concerns on the seriousness posed by cyber crime to governments (Elected, Ventral & Stool, 2013).In 1999, cyber attacks increased at an alarming rate. For instance, the renowned Melissa virus infected thousands of computers. This virus cost users more than $80 million, which increased sale of antivirus.

The beginning of 21st century also saw a virus (l Love you), which infected lions of computers within 12 hours in the manner of virus Melissa. The author, a Filipino student, led to the creation of European Cybercafé treaty. During the same year, internet merchants such as Amazon, eBay and Dates, among others, were caused to be offline for a number of hours by hackers from California University.The following year (2001), several virus and worms were unleashed, which caused over $2 billion in damages.

Moreover, author of Melissa virus was caught and imprisoned. The following year saw the creation of more worms and virus such as Keel and Slammer, among others. Moreover, hackers started to target root severs. Since then, cyber attacks have intensified as governments and agencies try to upgrade their cyber security levels (Klein, Nicholas & Sullivan, 2013).

In 2003, DISH began the process of establishing National Cyber Security division.After which, several instances of cyber attacks were experienced in the United States, Europe and Australia. Some of the major attacks included the 2009 Aurora attacks, the 2008 operation buckshot Yankee, among others. The year 2010 saw the operation of United States Cyber Command. Additionally, steps were made to reduce espionage attacks.

However, this has never been fulfilled as the latest internet attacks were at CIA in June 2013. Beginning 2012, agencies on cyberspace worked to introduce digital identity ecosystem with the aim of minimizing cyber attacks (Drabber, Detaching, Dizzier, Sans, Shamanism, & Normalized, 2013).Security and prosperity of nations depend on integrity as well as stability of information and communication infrastructure. For instance, Australia's communication infrastructure is central to its economic prosperity as well as social well-being. In essence, protecting a country's CIT system is vital for its national security and well-being. The destruction, stealing, altering and compromising of information.

This has had its repercussions on Australian systems. Improvement in CIT technology has made it possible for hackers to target government institutions.In addition, technology has brought about ways of minimizing cyber attacks. Essentially, technology has become crucial to the development and implementation of successful cyber security. In this regard, a number of agencies have been given the task of helping in implementation of Australian Cyber Security Strategy. This has also been done in Europe and United States as well as other countries like Ghana, among others (Boating, Illumine, Isabella & dud, 2011).

In the process, governments have introduced new policies aimed at protecting their privacy, identities as well as online transactions.These policies have also been tailored to protect business transactions and to help businesses run their CIT infrastructure in a secure and reliable manner. Additionally, governments and other agencies have invested in cyber security to ensure that their CIT infrastructures are resilient. These are aimed at protecting citizen's information as well as privacy and identity.

Additionally, cyber security helps to protect customer information from reaching hackers and other cyber criminals. Policies on cyber security have been tailored to incorporate shared responsibilities, partnerships, and risk management.Additionally, cyber security has been aimed at protecting shared values, active international engagement and national leadership. Technology has improved exposure, scrutiny, response and reduction of cyber threats.

Interactions with other governments have also improved information sharing on the latest technologies on cyber security. Additionally, legal frameworks have also been established to identify and prosecute cyber criminals. Technology has also brought about the establishment of trusted global network environment, which are resilient and resistant to cyber attacks (Phenomenon Institute, 2012).Cyber security has affected Privacy/freedom of Speech Cyber security poses numerous challenges on digital information.

In addition, cyber security poses challenge on the systems within which information is stored or transmitted. Impacts of cyber security are many and varied depending on the user of CIT systems. However, this can be categorized in two groups namely, individual users along with organizational users. It is necessary to note that international boundaries do not have frameworks for controlling data in and out of their countries through the internet. This poses challenge to devices and information on internet systems.

Cyber security has brought about the establishment of ICANN, which has ensured that every device is assigned unique identification known as IP address. This development has exposed privacy of information. For instance, Users are currently identified with the devices they use for communication. Although this development has increased cyber security, some quarters argue that it has also infringed on human rights to rivalry as well as rights to free speech (Suffolk, 2012).

Cyber security has established resilient networks for individuals, governments and business agencies Cyber security has also influenced the world positively.For instance, it has established trusted networks, which can be used to transact businesses globally. Cyber security has also led to establishment of resilient networks, which are reliable and resistant to cyber attacks. This has worked to boost economies and cross border business improved their networks in cyber security and hence secured customer information as well as potential theft by hackers. However, it should be noted that hackers are also using new technologies in a constantly changing CIT environment to cause new threats to internet users (Phenomenon Institute, 2012).Cyber Security has led to new policies aimed at minimizing cyber crime Cyber security has also led to establishment of laws and regulations aimed at minimizing cyber threats.

These include prosecution and identification of cyber criminals. This move has reduced interest in cyber attacks from programmers. Moreover, the signing of the European Cybercafé treaty as well as other cyber crime treaties governing the world has educed interest in cyber attacks from countries without laws on cyber crime. Cyber security spans numerous areas. For instance, it spans through consumer, political advocacy, academic, business and national security interests.

United States has proposed legislative proposals on cyber security. These proposals are supposedly aimed at protecting national security, protecting federal networks, safeguarding personal data, creating tough civil liberties and creating tough privacy protections. Governments have also introduced cross border information sharing networks aimed at establishing secure protocols for national issues. In essence, cyber security has introduced tough policies, which have made tremendous progress in minimizing cyber crime (Simmer & Brown, 2011). Cyber crime has continued to escalate in the recent past.

User's identification data have been stolen in controversial circumstances. However, governments around the world are speeding up their efforts to combat cyber crime. It is necessary to note that governments have also experienced large-scale cyber attacks. Such attacks have presented challenges on national security, social well being and economies. Consequently, governments such s United States, Australia and Europe, among others have worked closely to improve their defense systems.

This has resulted in cyber security policies, which have affected stakeholders in different measures.